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Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.
When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

19:29 to his mouth. When Jesus was first being nailed to the cross, the soldiers offered to give him a drink of vinegar and gall (Matthew 27:34), and also a drink of wine and myrrh (Mark 15:23), each designed as a drug to alleviate the pain. He would not accept them, for it was His intention to drink the full cup of God’s wrath on sin (John 18:11) without mitigation. Now, however, it had been fully accomplished, and this one Scripture remained to be fulfilled. The thirst associated with crucifixion was very intense, and was a real part of His sufferings (note Luke 16:24), for it is part of the torment of Hades. In contrast, and as a result, He has made wonderful, eternal provision to relieve our thirst (e.g., John 7:37; Revelation 22:17).

19:30 It is finished. This is the great victory cry (Matthew 27:50) of the Lord Jesus Christ, for He had finished the work He had come to do (John 4:34; 17:4). Long ago He had finished the work of creation (Genesis 2:1-3; Hebrews 4:3); now He had finished the work of salvation! This is also the sixth of the seven “words from the cross.”

19:30 bowed his head. The words “bowed His head” are the same as “laid His head.” The first of the eighty times Jesus called Himself “the Son of man” was when he said, “The Son of man hath not where to lay His head” (Matthew 8:20). In the Old Testament (but see also Luke 24:5), the term “bow the head” is equivalent to “worship,” that is, to “bow down to the will of God” (see notes on Genesis 22:5). During His earthly ministry, we never read of Jesus worshiping God, though He taught others to do so. He had nowhere to “bow His head,” to “worship.” He had come to do the will of God and to finish His work, and that was still unfinished until He went to the cross. But now the work was accomplished; He had perfectly finished the will of God, so at last He could “bow His head.” He finally had a place to worship the Father.

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