New Defender's Study Bible Notes
1:6 sons of God. This remarkable vision can only have been given to Job (or the author of Job’s record) by special revelation after his sufferings and subsequent restoration. The angels are called “sons of God” (Hebrew bene elohim) because they had no parents as such, but were directly created by God (see also Genesis 6:2; Job 2:1; 38:7). Adam was called “the son of God” (Luke 3:38) for the same reason.
1:6 Satan. This is the Bible’s earliest identification of Satan by name, assuming the traditional antiquity of the book of Job (compare I Chronicles 21:1). The name Satan means “accuser” or “adversary,” and he is “the accuser of our brethren” (Revelation 12:10); this recorded attack on Job is typical of Satan’s attacks. Note also that, despite his primeval rebellion and fall (Ezekiel 28:13-17), he was still able to go among the other sons of God, to make his accusations before God.
1:7 walking up and down. Note I Peter 5:8: “The devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour.” On this occasion, he was seeking the most righteous man in the earth, hoping to defeat God’s plan for mankind by tempting such a man to reject His Creator and Savior.
1:12 in thy power. Satan here is proposing a scientific experiment, as it were, testing Job’s professed faith in God by causing him to suffer great loss. God is allowing it, at least in Job’s case, knowing that Job’s faith will not fail, thus demonstrating to “the principalities and powers in the heavenly places...the manifold wisdom of God” (Ephesians 3:10).