New Defender's Study Bible Notes
11:2 shew thee the truth. The detailed prophecies in Daniel 11, meticulously fulfilled later over several centuries, constitute one of the chief arguments of liberals against the traditional authorship of Daniel. Critics argue that such intricate fulfillments are not possible. But the Angel of the Lord, who dictated these prophecies to Daniel, called them “the truth.”
11:2 three kings in Persia. The three kings and their reigns that succeeded Cyrus (Daniel was writing in the first year of Cyrus and his deputy king Darius—Daniel 11:1), were: Cambyses (529–522 B.C.), known also in terms of his title Ahasuerus (Ezra 4:6); Smerdis (522–521 B.C.), also known by the title Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7); and Darius Hystapses (521–485 B.C.), mentioned in Ezra 4:24.
11:2 realm of Grecia. The fourth king was Xerxes (486–465 B.C.), notorious for his great army and navy campaigns against Greece, only to suffer bitter defeat. He is probably the same as the Ahasuerus who was king in the days of Esther (Esther 1:1).
11:3 with great dominion. This mighty king is none other than Alexander the Great (334–323 B.C.). After more than another century of Persian power, and Graeco-Persian wars, Alexander decisively defeated the Persians and swiftly conquered the other nations of his day. He was the “he-goat” of the prophecies of Daniel 8:5-7,21.
11:4 four winds of heaven. The rapid division of Alexander’s dominion after his death into four parts is noted again here (see on Daniel 8:8, 22), because these divisions are directly involved in the subsequent history.