New Defender's Study Bible Notes
10:1 third year of Cyrus. According to Daniel 1:21, the prophet Daniel “continued” to the first year of Cyrus. This was the end of Jeremiah’s prophesied seventy years, and Cyrus at that time gave the first decree for Jews to return to Jerusalem (II Chronicles 36:22-23). Presumably Daniel, being an aged man by this time, “retired” from his court position at this time. However, he continued to live at least another two years, receiving the vision (Daniel 10:7) of this chapter “in the third year of Cyrus.”
10:4 river, which is Hiddekel. See Genesis 2:14. This is another name for the Tigris River.
10:6 appearance of lightning. The description of this “certain man” (Daniel 10:5) is essentially identical with the description of the glorified Christ in Revelation 1:13-16, and identified by John as “one like unto the Son of man” (Revelation 1:13). We must conclude that this vision of Daniel was in some sense a manifestation of the pre-incarnate Christ, sent to answer Daniel’s persistent prayer (Daniel 10:12). Note also that, because of his consistent godliness and prayers, Daniel is thrice called “a man greatly beloved” (Daniel 9:23; 10:11,19).
10:13 prince of the kingdom of Persia. This verse provides a remarkable insight into the reality and might of the principalities and powers under the rule of Satan, “the prince of the power of the air” (Ephesians 2:2). Although Satan is not omnipresent, he has a highly organized host of evil angels at his command. Here, even the “angel of the LORD” enlisted the help of the archangel Michael to penetrate the demonic hosts of the evil angel assigned by Satan to oversee the kingdom of Persia, the nation dominant in the world at that time (see also Jude 9; Revelation 12:7-9). The “prince of Grecia” is also mentioned (Daniel 10:20) as another powerful principality in Satan’s hierarchy. On the other hand, Michael is called “your prince” (Daniel 10:21), implying that God also has high angels assigned to nations, Michael being associated with Israel.