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Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?
If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink; for to morrow we die.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

15:29 baptized for the dead. This is the only reference in the Bible to anyone being “baptized for the dead,” and has obviously become a very controversial verse, with many suggested interpretations. It could not mean that a dead unbeliever could somehow be saved by proxy baptism, for baptism does not save even living believers. It could not even save unbaptized believers, for they were already saved by grace through faith alone, whether or not they were baptized (Ephesians 2:8-9; Luke 23:43). This vicarious baptism for the dead could not have saved anyone, yet Paul seems to have mentioned it with approval, or at least not with disapproval, merely pointing out that it was meaningless if there were no future resurrection of the dead. But this might imply that he thought it was meaningful in light of the certain future resurrection. Since neither he nor any other New Testament writer mentions this practice anywhere else, and since it is not practiced today (except by certain cults), it remains somewhat enigmatic as to purpose and value, and no expositor should be dogmatic. The difficulty probably has to do with the precise intent of the preposition huper, here translated “for.” This word can be translated in various ways, depending on context. The context here is dealing with the future resurrection, and immersion in water beautifully symbolizes death and resurrection, both that of Christ and of the believer being baptized (see on Romans 6:3-5). There would certainly be no point in submitting to the inconvenience of immersion if the events it symbolized were non-existent. It merely would increase one’s jeopardy of persecution and earlier death (I Corinthians 15:30), all to no avail if there were no resurrection. A possible translation, therefore, could be “baptism with respect [only] to the dead.” That is, such baptism might depict one’s future death, but not his future resurrection, if there were no such thing. It would only be a baptism for the dead, not one showing both death and resurrection.

15:32 fought with beasts. This is quoted from Isaiah 22:13. With respect to Paul’s encounter with beasts at Ephesus, there is no mention of this either in the book of Acts or in Paul’s list of his travails in II Corinthians 11:23-33. Possibly he was referring to the mob acting like beasts at the uproar in Ephesus (Acts 19:28-34).

15:33 evil communications. This might be paraphrased as a warning that false doctrine inevitably leads to wicked behavior. Denying a future accounting to God (implicit in denying the resurrection) leads to the philosophy of fatalistic eating, drinking and merry-making. Denying creation in favor of animalistic evolution leads to animalistic conduct, and so on.

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