New Defender's Study Bible Notes
16:4 children of Joseph. Joseph had been given a double inheritance by Israel, the father of the twelve tribes, so his inheritance was awarded after that of Judah. Also, Joshua himself was of the tribe of Ephraim (Numbers 13:8), and this tribe had been given preeminence among the two by Israel (Genesis 48:20). Ephraim eventually became recognized as the leader among the ten tribes of the northern division of Israel, Judah the leader of the two-tribe (with Benjamin) division in the south.
16:5 the border. For the approximate boundaries of the twelve tribes, as detailed in Joshua 13–22, see the map entitled “The Twelve Tribes” following the appendices.