New Defender's Study Bible Notes
3:19 times of refreshing. The “times of refreshing” in Acts 3:19, beginning with the first coming of Christ, are a foreshadowing of the “times of restitution” in Acts 3:21, at His second coming. The Greek word for “refreshing,” used only here, literally means “reviving,” or “breathing again,” referring evidently to the new birth which results from repentance and conversion. Note also that, when Peter here urged listeners to repent and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out,” he did not add, “be baptized,” as he had in his first sermon (Acts 2:38). This further indicates that baptism is not required for salvation and forgiveness, though its importance and immediacy are undoubtedly still assumed.