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The RATE Project In 1997, a group of young-earth creationists met in San Diego, California, to discuss the age of the earth. Their goal was to clarify the chronology of earth history and search for a fundamental correction to the usual assumptions of deep time. They were skeptical of the evolutionary timescale that dominates modern geology. These scientists reviewed the assumptions and procedures used in estimating the ages of rock strata and they recognized multiple weaknesses. The group identified itself with the acronym RATE, which stands for Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth. The RATE team included the following scientists and scholars:   Steven A. Austin, Ph.D. Soft rock geologist   John R. Baumgardner, Ph.D. Geophysicist   Steven W. Boyd, Ph.D. Hebrew scholar   Eugene F. Chaffin, Ph.D. Physicist   Donald B. DeYoung, Ph.D. Physicist   D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D. Physicist   Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D. Hard rock geologist   Larry Vardiman, Ph.D. Meteorologist, Chairman The RATE project was sponsored and promoted by three leading creation science organizations. These included the Institute for Creation Research and the Creation Research Society. Answers in Genesis gave startup support to the project. Technical research activity is expensive, and all RATE costs, which amounted to about $2 million, were covered by private donations. Sincere thanks are expressed to the many individuals and organizations that financially supported the RATE effort. Several research initiatives were identified and conducted over an eight-year period. The main research initiatives and their principle investigators were:   1. Carbon-14 Dating John R. Baumgardner   2. Helium Diffusion in Zircon Crystals D. Russell Humphreys   3. Radiohalos in Granite Andrew A. Snelling   4. Fission Tracks in Zircons Andrew A. Snelling   5. Discordant Radioisotope Dates Steven A. Austin   6. Radioisotope Dating Case Studies Andrew A. Snelling   7. Theories of Accelerated Nuclear Decay Eugene F. Chaffin   8. A Proper Reading of Genesis 1:1–2:3 Steven W. Boyd The RATE project reported on the following five general conclusions:   1. A large amount of radioactive decay has occurred.   2. Nuclear decay processes were accelerated during episodes in earth history.   3. Conventional radioisotope dates are therefore incorrect by large factors.   4. Creation and the Genesis Flood are genuine historical events.   5. Scripture is scientifically reliable. A comprehensive treatment of the RATE research is available in three primary publications. The first technical book is titled Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: A Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative.1 It fully explains the initial RATE research plans and also includes a comprehensive 90-page glossary of terms. The second technical book has the same main title with the subtitle Results of a Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative.2 It gives full details of the final RATE research results with complete documentation. The third is a less technical book titled Thousands…Not Billions.3 It summarizes the RATE research and results with a minimum of technical terms. Several related references, available in many public and college libraries, are listed at the end of the book. In addition to the primary publications in books, the RATE research was reported at the fall 2003 meeting of the American Geophysical Society in San Francisco, California (pdf files of the actual posters are available in this article4); in the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creation;5 in two DVDs titled Thousands Not Billions and The Premier RATE Conference; and in numerous short articles in Acts & Facts.6-13 References Vardiman, L., A. A. Snelling and E. F. Chaffin, eds. 2000. Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: A Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research and St. Joseph, MO: Creation Research Society. Vardiman, L., A. A. Snelling and E. F. Chaffin, eds. 2005. Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Research Initiative. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research and Chino Valley, AZ: Creation Research Society. DeYoung, D. B. 2005. Thousands Not Billions: Challenging an Icon of Evolution, Questioning the Age of the Earth. Green Forest, AR: Master Books. Vardiman, L. 2004. RATE Posters Well Received at AGU Conference. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Conference, San Francisco CA, December 2003. Vardiman, L. et al. 2003. Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Ivey, R., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship. Snelling, A. A. 2005. Polonium Radiohalos: The Model for Their Formation Tested and Verified. Acts & Facts. 34 (8). Snelling, A. A. 2004. Radioisotope Dating of Grand Canyon Rocks: Another Devastating Failure for Long-Age Geology. Acts & Facts. 33 (10). Humphreys, D. R. 2003. New RATE Data Support a Young World. Acts & Facts. 32 (12). Baumgardner, J. 2003. Carbon Dating Undercuts Evolution's Long Ages. Acts & Facts. 32 (10). Snelling, A. A. 2002. Radiohalos—Significant and Exciting Research Results. Acts & Facts. 31 (11). Humphreys, D. R. 2002. Nuclear Decay: Evidence for A Young World. Acts & Facts. 31 (10). Snelling, A. A. 1999. Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Crustal Rocks and the Problem of Excess Argon. Acts & Facts. 28 (3). Humphreys, D. R. 2005. Evidence for a Young World. Acts & Facts. 34 (6). Click here to return to the main ICR Research page.

Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth (RATE) Introduction Scientists associated with the Institute for Creation Research have finished a five-year research project known as RATE, or Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth. For over a hundred years, evolutionists have insisted that the earth is billions of years old, and have arrogantly dismissed any views contrary to this belief. However, the team of seven creation scientists have discovered incredible physical evidence that supports what the Bible says about the young age of the earth. Learn about their discoveries and explore the scientific evidence that supports biblical truth here! RATE Articles Polonium Radiohalos: The Model for Their Formation Tested and Verified (#386) by Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D. Radioisotope Dating of Grand Canyon Rocks: Another Devastating Failure for Long-Age Geology (#376) by Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D. New Rate Data Support a Young World (#366) by Russell Humphreys, Ph.D. Carbon Dating Undercuts Evolution's Long Ages (#364) by John Baumgardner, Ph.D. Radiohalos - Significant And Exciting Research Results (#353) by Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D. Nuclear Decay: Evidence For A Young World (#352) by Russell Humphreys, Ph.D. Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Crystal Rocks and the Problem of Excess Argon (#309) by Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D. Evidence for a Young World (#384) by Russell Humphreys, Ph.D. RATE Audio RATE - What Earthly Reason? Download MP3 RATE - Rocks Evolution, Part 1 Download MP3 RATE - Rocks Evolution, Part 2 Download MP3 RATE - Diamonds: A Creationist's Best Friend Download MP3 RATE - Thousands, Not Billions Download MP3 RATE Resources Thousands... Not Billions Understand the findings of the RATE project. Dr. DeYoung authored this non-technical book in order to equip the layperson to defend scientific six-day creation and refute modern dating techniques.   Thousands... Not Billions - DVD As a companion to the non-technical book, or by itself, Thousands...Not Billions is the ultimate multimedia resource for any family, student or teacher's library. Evolution and modern science has questioned the Biblical account of Creation for years, and now compelling new scientific research by ICR challenges modern science and their dating techniques.   Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth, Volume I The RATE book is a definitive resource on radioactive dating for every scientist's library, whether evolutionist or creationist. It examines radioisotope theory, exposes its plaguing problems, and offers a better alternative. Free download [2.8MB PDF] Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth, Volume II The age of the earth is an important issue in Christianity today. If the 6 day Genesis account is fallacious, then how can the rest of Scripture be relied upon? Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative addresses the issues raised by the first RATE technical book in 2000. Free Download

RATE Posters Well Received at AGU Conference Three RATE scientists presented posters at the 2003 American Geophysical Union Fall Conference in San Francisco in early December. John Baumgardner, Russell Humphreys, and Larry Vardiman each offered exciting results coming from research on Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth for the first time to a general science conference. The posters were well received by the organizers and attendees at the conference. About 10,000 scientists from all fields of geophysics meet annually at the Moscone Center in San Francisco to make presentations on their latest research. This year's conference included a session on the Centennial Celebration of Radioisotopic Geochronology: Dates, Rates, and New Debates. Abstracts at the conference may be reviewed at their website under Fall 2003 conference. This seemed like an ideal opportunity for RATE to report its latest results in a public forum. Dr. Humphreys, recently of Sandia National Laboratories and now full-time with ICR, reported on Recently Measured Helium Diffusion Rate for Zircon Suggests Inconsistency With U-Pb Age for Fenton Hill Granodiorite (V32C-1047). His actual poster had a title even more provocative to geoscientists: Precambrian zircons yield a helium diffusion age of 6,000 years. (“Precambrian” implies an accepted age of more than a half-billion years.) He presented his findings that granites which are dated at more than a billion years old with Uranium-Lead dating methods still have large quantities of helium in them. This Helium along with Lead are daughter products of the radioactive decay of Uranium. The Helium should have all diffused out of the granite by now if it were a billion or more years old. However, if the granite is only thousands of years old, the quantity of Helium still remaining agrees very closely with the rates Dr. Humphreys obtained from laboratory measurements of helium diffusivity in zircon. The measurements of the helium gave an age for the zircons of Biblical proportions: 6,000 ± 2,000 years. These findings indicate more than a billion years worth (at today's rates) of nuclear decay of Uranium has occurred within the last 6,000 years! Dr. John Baumgardner from Los Alamos National Laboratory and an active member of the RATE group reported on The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in Organic Samples Older than 100 ka ( V32C-1045). He discussed his findings that various geological samples which are thought to be millions of years old, including diamonds, contain measurable amounts of Carbon-14. Samples this old should Dr. John Baumgardnerhave no Carbon-14 because it would have all decayed by now. Residual Carbon-14 found above the background level indicates that these samples thought to be millions of years old can be at most thousands of years old. The presence of Carbon-14 in diamond was of particular interest because diamonds eliminate the likelihood of contamination. Dr. Larry Vardiman, the facilitator of the RATE project, presented a poster prepared by Dr. Andrew Snelling on Abundant Po Radiohalos in Phanerozoic Granites and Timescale Implications for Their Formation (V32C-1046). He discussed the presence of Polonium radiohalos in granites and a mechanism for their formation. Radiohalos are discolored spheres of crystal surrounding centers of radioactive material like Uranium, Thorium, and Polonium. These Polonium radiohalos appear to have formed under catastrophic conditions which occurred during Creation or the Flood only a few thousand years ago. Radiohalos can only form very rapidly in a narrow temperature range after granite has cooled from magma to crystalline rock cooler than 150oC but before the radioactive center has completely decayed and hydrothermal circulation through the rock ceases. In the case of Polonium this must have happened on the order of weeks, not thousands or millions of years and was probably part of a brief but intense hydrothermal process combined with extremely rapid nuclear decay. The three papers were controversial but were accepted for poster presentations by the AGU organizing committee and were well received by those who interacted with the authors. The RATE scientists were greatly encouraged by the good reception they received. Some of the scientists who visited and talked with them were from radioisotope laboratories at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, Yale, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, etc. The visiting scientists did not necessarily agree with the conclusions but the authors received no major negative comments. Some visitors actually offered suggestions to assist in future research. We hope these researchers will spread the word that Creationist scientists are conducting quality work and have solid evidence for a completely different paradigm about the age of the earth. Posters from conference: AGU Poster by Dr. D. Russell Humphreys-Precambrian Zircons Yield a Helium Diffusion Age of 6,000 years (December, 2003). AGU Poster by Dr. John R. Baumgardner-The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in Organic Samples Older than 100 ka (December, 2003). AGU Poster by Dr. Andrew Snelling-Abundant Po Radiohalos in Phanerozoic Granites and Timescale Implications for their Formation (December, 2003). Back to top

The CLIMATE Project The Climate project had its official beginning in 2006 following the completion of the RATE project. It was composed primarily of numerical simulations of winter storms in the western United States enhanced by ice age conditions for warm oceans and cold continents, and simulations of hurricanes and tropical cyclones into hypercanes and hypercyclones due to warm sea-surface temperatures. However, various climate studies were conducted by Dr. Larry Vardiman and his students in the ICR Graduate School (ICRGS) beginning as early as 1982. The early climate projects between 1982 and 2001 were reported in numerous technical articles published at the International Conferences on Creationism and summarized in the ICR monograph Climates Before and After the Genesis Flood.1 David Rush completed an ICRGS master’s thesis in 1990in which he used the U.S. Air Force LOWTRAN code to simulate the radiational heating under a water vapor canopy.2 The vapor canopy model was found to exhibit a major flaw that could not be overcome in numerous attempts to adjust parameters such as the mass of water in a hypothetical canopy, solar power, radiation geometries, and earth albedos. Earth’s surface temperature was far too hot for survival of life on earth prior to the Genesis Flood with water content as low as 1 meter (3 feet). At this time the ejection of water and vapor into the atmosphere during catastrophic events of the Genesis Flood seems to be a better explanation for the deluge of water from the windows of heaven(Genesis 7:11) than from the collapse of a pre-Flood vapor canopy. Dr. Vardiman published an ICR monograph in 1990 on helium flux through the atmosphere.3 A complete theoretical calculation was made of the thermal escape of helium from sources in the earth’s crust through the atmosphere to space. Helium is a light, noble gas that has a very small escape velocity driven by the temperature of the gases in the atmosphere. The calculation showed that the concentration of helium in the atmosphere should be much larger than is currently observed if the earth is 4.5 billion years old and thermal escape is the only means by which helium can be lost to space. The amount of helium currently observed in the atmosphere would indicate that the earth could only be 2 million years old, at most. Unfortunately, within ten years after the calculation was performed, another method of escape—the polar wind—was theoretically and experimentally confirmed, which could explain where all the helium had gone. So, the calculation was found to not be a valid indicator of young age. Dr. Vardiman published an ICR monograph in 1993 on ice cores.4 It reported on the development of an equation that described the growth of ice sheets under non-uniformitarian conditions, such as would have been prevalent in the Ice Age following the Genesis Flood. The conventional uniformitarian ice sheet growth equations were developed by W. Dansgaard and J. Nye. Dr. Vardiman modified the conventional equations to accommodate an initial high precipitation rate declining exponentially to that observed today. Boundary conditions for precipitation were applied to boreholes at Camp Century, Dye-3, and Summit, Greenland, to obtain a timescale. Distributions of atmospheric temperature as a function of depth in the ice sheets were calculated using stable oxygen isotopes. Complex but tractable equations were found for the three ice cores. The temperature distributions were similar in all ice cores—warm temperatures at the bottom of the cores, cooling to a minimum at the end of the Ice Age, warming rapidly during deglaciation, and uniformly warm for the past few thousand years. As part of the ice age research, Dr. Vardiman published an ICR monograph in 1996 on sea-floor sediments.5 It reported on the distributions of stable oxygen isotopes and the estimated ocean temperature from sea-floor sediments derived from the calcium carbonate in the shells of foraminifera. The distributions of stable isotopes from numerous sea-floor sediment cores from the Deep Sea Drilling Project showed the same shape as in the ice cores in Greenland, except the distributions were inverted; that is, when the ice showed a maximum in oxygen-18, the sea-floor sediment showed a minimum. From this analysis, the timing for the accumulation of sea-floor sediments and the growth of ice sheets in polar regions were found to match and occur over a timeframe of hundreds, not tens of thousands, of years, confirming a young-earth model. Karen Spelman (Bousselot) published an ICRGS master’s thesis in 1996 on numerical modeling of global climate after the Genesis Flood.6 The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCM1 global climate model that normally ran on a Unix-based mainframe computer was adapted to run on a PC computer by a retired government programmer, Herman Daily. The sea-surface temperature was increased in the model to 40oC (104oF) and warmer in various configurations to compute the precipitation rates as a function of temperature, latitude, and longitude. Graphical displays showed that precipitation was increased by as much as 50 mm/day (~2 in/day) in polar regions and on mountain tops. This is enough to produce 60 feet of solid ice per year, or 6,000 feet in a century—more than enough to explain the polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers in only a few hundred years since the Genesis Flood. Dr. Vardiman published a research article in 1997 on the dispersion of oxygen isotopes near the edge of an ice shelf.7 The basic conclusion was that the growth and melting of ice shelves on the ocean upwind of the borehole location could explain the consistent distribution of formation temperature with time among the ice cores. The minimum in oxygen-18 and, consequently, the coldest temperature found in the ice cores at the height of the Ice Age could be explained by the greater distance from open ocean that was the source for oxygen-18. And, the maximum in oxygen-18 and highest temperature before and after the Ice Age could be explained by the short distance from open ocean when ice shelves were reduced. The warmest temperature at the bottom of the ice cores before the Ice Age also implied that the oceans were very warm prior to the Ice Age. Nancy Zavacky published a master’s thesis in 2002 on hurricane growth over hot sea-surface temperatures.8 The new mesoscale meteorology model (MM5) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research was applied to a weak hurricane (Florence, 1988) which formed in the Gulf of Mexico and moved northward from the Yucatan Peninsula to New Orleans. The sea-surface temperature (SST) was increased in 5oC increments between 30oC (86oF) to 45oC (112oF). Actual Hurricane Florence had a sea-surface temperature of about 30oC (86oF) and was simulated very accurately on MM5. When the SST was increased the horizontal wind speed, the vertical wind speed, and precipitation rate all increased, becoming a hypercane as coined by Kerry Emanuel at MIT. At an SST of 45oC (112o) the horizontal wind speed quadrupled, the vertical wind speed doubled, and the precipitation rate increased by a factor of 10. Because the ocean was significantly warmer after the Flood, there were likely many hypercanes and major erosion for hundreds of years. Stephen Goodenow published an ICRGS master’s thesis in 2004 on the Younger Dryas.9 The Younger Dryas is an intense but short-period reversal in the warming trend following the Ice Age. The reversal is evident in most of the ice core records and resulted in major changes in climate in Europe and various other locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Goodenow analyzed various climate trends near the beginning and end of the event and found that it began and ended abruptly and lasted less than 40 years, possibly, less than 4 years. Such an intense and short event was catastrophic, not associated with typical climate changes that occur over much longer periods of time. Goodenow hypothesized that the intense and brief cooling was probably due to the sudden release of a large quantity of meltwater from central Canada during deglaciation of the Canadian ice sheet. The cold water broke through ice dams and flowed catastrophically down the Mississippi River and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Cold, fresh water from the Mississippi River would have flowed through the Gulf of Mexico, around the tip of Florida, up the East Coast of the United States, met the water escaping the St. Lawrence Seaway, and traveled eastward across the North Atlantic. The cold, fresh water would have floated on the surface of the Atlantic Ocean, creating an extensive, cold region upwind of Europe. An unusually cold North Atlantic would have formed cold, dry content of the snow falling in Greenland. Such an event could have happened quickly because only the upper few meters of the ocean would have been affected. Michael Oard, an adjunct faculty member at ICR, published an ICR monograph in 2005 on ice cores.10 It is an updated examination of the ice core history of Greenland and Antarctica. He compared the various evidences, models, and interpretations for estimating the timing of the ice age. His basic conclusion was that the young-earth, creation-Flood model is more likely than the old-earth, evolutionary-uniformitarian model. He believes the creation-Flood model is a superior interpretation of the wild ice core fluctuations in d18O during the Ice Age; the Greenland ice cores generally show only one Ice Age, contrary to the expectations of mainstream scientists; the surprise broadening of the evolutionary-uniformitarian timescale of volcanic and 10Be spikes with depth supports the creation-Flood model; and troughs and ridges in isochronous radio echo data line up vertically with the bedrock topography, indicating no movement of the ice sheets. James Zavacky published a master’s thesis in 2006 on estimating age from ice layers in ice cores.11 He applied the non-uniformitarian ice accumulation model developed by Dr. Vardiman to the latest high-resolution GISP-2 core in Greenland in order to determine if the conventional interpretation that 250,000 annual layers is valid. He concluded that there was a shift in storm frequency evident in the ice core data at about 1,381 meters (~4,000 ft) below the current surface of the ice sheet. Relatively calm storm conditions above this level are consistent with conditions today that permit annual layers of a foot in thickness or more to accumulate and be observed. Below 4,000 feet, the layers are thought to be due to many individual storms each year that leave distinctive layers. Stormy conditions during the accumulation of ice at lower depths contain large amounts of dust and hoar frost layers that indicate a long period of time if interpreted incorrectly as annual layers. Consequently, the conventional view that ice sheets accumulated over 100,000 years or more is wrong. They likely developed over only a few thousand years. In 2005 Dr. Vardiman began a series of numerical simulations of storms energized by a warm ocean due to the Genesis Flood. Attention was devoted primarily to additional snow in the mountains of the western United States for mid-latitude storms and stronger winds, and greater precipitation for tropical cyclones in the Middle East and Florida. He used an improved version of NCAR’s mesoscale climate model MM5 called the Weather and Research Model (WRF) to simulate Ice Age conditions in Yosemite National Park and Yellowstone National Park. He also simulated the greater winds and precipitation of hypercyclones in the Middle East and hypercanes in Florida. Dr. Vardiman and Dr. Wesley Brewer published two technical articles in 2010 on a young-earth explanation of the Ice Age in Yosemite National Park.12, 13 Their conclusions were that if 20 Deep Upper Low storms and one Pineapple Express storm occurred each year for 100 years during the Ice Age, the depth of glaciers in Yosemite National Park was estimated to be at least 3,500 feet (~1 km). Glaciers thousands of feet thick could have readily developed in Yosemite National Park following the Genesis Flood. Warm sea-surface temperatures doubled or quadrupled the precipitation in Yosemite National Park and throughout the Sierra Nevada. This enhanced snowfall and greater frequency of storms appear to be adequate to explain glaciation in the Sierra Nevada during an ice age in a young-earth time frame. Glaciers thousands of feet thick could have readily developed during hundreds of years following the Genesis Flood. Dr. Vardiman and Dr. Brewer also published a technical article in 2010 on a young-earth explanation of the Ice Age in Yellowstone National Park.14 Their conclusions in the Yellowstone area were that glaciers over a kilometer thick (3,300 ft) could have readily developed in the mountains in and around Yellowstone National Park during hundreds of years following the Genesis Flood. Glaciers filled the basin of Yellowstone Lake, topped many of the mountains, and flowed down the canyons and valleys in and around Yellowstone. The glaciers in Yellowstone were estimated to be on the order of 1 km (3,300 ft) thick for sea-surface temperatures warmer than 30oC (86oF) over a period of a century. This is slightly less than the estimate of 1.1 km (3,500 ft) for the same period in Yosemite National Park reported earlier by the authors. The difference is hypothesized to be due to the descending motions inland from the coastline caused by convection over the ocean. Yosemite National Park is located in the Sierra Nevada closer to the coastline and was less influenced by these descending motions. Dr. Vardiman and Dr. Brewer published a technical article in 2011 on a young-earth explanation for more vegetation in the Middle East following the Genesis Flood.15 They simulated how cyclones in the Arabian Sea would grow into hypercyclones (extreme cyclones) over hot sea-surface temperatures and change the circulation patterns and precipitation over the entire Middle East. Their conclusions were that hot sea-surface temperatures created a large counterclockwise, low-level circulation over the Middle East. A large counterclockwise circulation near the surface and a clockwise circulation aloft developed over the entire Middle East for hot sea-surface temperatures. The circulation had a diameter of about 5,000 km (~3,000 miles), and the circulation at the surface exceeded 65 m/s (~145 mph). The winds in the clockwise circulation high in the atmosphere exceeded 130 m/s (~290 mph). Heavy rain was produced near Oman as the simulated hypercyclone Gonu moved northwestward across the Arabian Sea exceeding 1,200 mm (~48 in), compared to about 600 mm (~24 in) for the actual cyclone. During the 18 days of numerical simulation, over 8,000 mm (320 in) of rain fell over the central Arabian Sea and Pakistan. Heavy rain also fell farther inland at higher terrain in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Moderate rain exceeding about 1,000 mm (~40 in) occurred near the sources of humidity, such as the eastern Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Oman. Moderate rain fell in Egypt, Israel, and along the western coast of Saudi Arabia, and in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Throughout the Middle East, light rain greater than 380 mm (~15 in) fell, producing much wetter conditions than are now present. There are places in the deserts of North Africa and Saudi Arabia today that rain has not fallen for tens of years. When occasional rain falls, vegetation springs up quickly, but only lasts for a short time. Under the conditions simulated in this study, it is likely that permanent vegetation would cover much of the sand and rocky soil in these regions. Other technical articles have been published since that time on the effects of extreme weather that would have followed the global Flood.16, 17 References Vardiman, L. 2001. Climates Before and After the Genesis Flood. ICR Monograph. Santee, CA: Institute for Creation Research. Rush, D. L. 1990. Radiative Equilibrium Temperature Profiles Under a Vapor Canopy. Master’s Thesis, Institute for Creation Research Graduate School, San Diego, CA. Vardiman, L. 1990. The Age of the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Study of the Helium Flux through the Atmosphere. ICR Monograph. Santee, CA: Institute for Creation Research. Vardiman, L. 1993. Ice Cores and the Age of the Earth. ICR Monograph. Santee, CA: Institute for Creation Research. Vardiman, L. 1996. Sea-Floor Sediment and the Age of the Earth. ICR Monograph. Santee, CA: Institute for Creation Research. Spelman, K. 1996. A Sensitivity Study of the Post-Flood Climate Using the NCAR CCM1 Model with a Warm Sea-Surface Temperature. Master’s Thesis, Institute for Creation Research Graduate School, San Diego, CA. Vardiman, L. 1997. Rapid Changes in Oxygen Isotope Content of Ice Cores Caused by Fractionation and Trajectory Dispersion near the Edge of an Ice Shelf. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal. 11: 52-60. Zavacky, N. 2002. Hurricane Response to Extreme Sea Surface Temperatures. Master’s Thesis, Institute for Creation Research Graduate School, San Diego, CA. Goodenow, S. 2004. A Catastrophist Cause for the Younger Dryas. Master’s Thesis, Institute for Creation Research Graduate School, San Diego, CA. Oard, M. 2005. The Frozen Record. ICR Technical Monograph. Santee, CA: Institute for Creation Research. Zavacky, J. 2006. An Analysis of Annual and Sub-Annual Layers Using a Young-Earth Analytical Model for the Formation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Master’s Thesis, Institute for Creation Research Graduate School, San Diego, CA. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2010. Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a Warm Ocean: A Pineapple Express Case Study. Answers Research Journal. 3 (2010): 23-36. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2010. Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a Warm Ocean: Deep Upper Low and Rex Blocking Pattern Case Studies. Answers Research Journal. 3 (2010): 119-145. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2010. Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yellowstone National Park with a Warm Ocean: Continuous Zonal Flow, Gulf of Alaska Low, and Plunging Western Low Case Studies. Answers Research Journal. 3 (2010): 209-266. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2011. A Well-watered Land: Numerical Simulations of a Hypercyclone in the Middle East. Answers Research Journal. 4 (2011): 55-74. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2012. Numerical Simulations of Hypercanes Charley and Fay in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico over a Warm Ocean. Answers Research Journal. 5 (2012): 13-24. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer, 2012. Numerical Simulations of Three Nor’easters with a Warm Atlantic Ocean. Answers Research Journal. 5: 39-58. Click here to return to the main ICR Research page.

The FAST Project The FAST project (Flood Activated Sedimentation and Tectonics) was a geology research project funded by ICR’s NCSF (National Creation Science Foundation). It began in 2006 and involved about a dozen geologists and geophysicists, both ICR staff, students, and adjunct scientists. The scientists involved in the FAST project were:   Dr. Steven A. Austin Dr. Clarence Burg   Dr. John H. Whitmore Dr. Tim L. Clarey   Mr. Raymond Strom Dr. John Morris   Mr. Paul Garner Mr. Bill Hoesch   Mr. Van Wingerden Mr. D. D. Stansbury   Mr. Roger Sigler   Dr. Steven Austin directed the project, which addressed catastrophic processes distinctive during the Genesis Flood that left features that can be studied in the rock strata yet today. Austin defined four subprojects in the following manner and provided a brief status of each as of January 21, 2010: Power word 1: Supercurrent—A very large mass of rapidly moving ocean water that was able, because of speed and turbulent flow, to sweep up and move enormous quantities of sediment within a current. Power sentence 1: During the global Flood described in Genesis, the ocean was propelled as supercurrents over large continental areas as the deep, fast-moving ocean mass swept up, moved and deposited sand in enormous dune-like structures, producing widespread sandstone layers. Power abstract 1: FAST researchers participating in the Coconino Sandstone project are documenting the sand-grain composition, the sand-grain texture, and large-scale current structures in sandstone in the southwestern United States. The researchers believe the evidence verifies the notion that the grains, textures, and structures were formed under fast-moving ocean waters, not in a desert sand dune environment by wind. The current structure being studied is called cross-bedding and is characteristic of the Coconino Sandstone of Grand Canyon. A deep-water supercurrent flowed southward at about three feet per second over the Grand Canyon Region in Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. The sandstone stratum even extends into Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The supercurrent deposited an estimated 10,000 cubic miles of sand over an area of 200,000 square miles. Power word 2: Superflow—An enormous mass of slurry composed of about half sediment and half entrained ocean water that moved by gravity like a giant mudflow over the ocean floor. Power sentence 2: During the global Flood described in Genesis, enormous slurries of sediment and water were propelled by gravity over the ocean floor, very quickly depositing both coarse and fine sediment layers. Power abstract 2: FAST researchers have discovered superflow to be one of the major ways sediment was moved during the global Flood. Sediment was moved under the ocean as thin but extensive slurries resembling mudflows. These slurry bodies moved at about 20 feet per second, retained laminar shear internally, developed “lift” from their streamlined shape, and created enough dynamic pressure to generate a hydroplane. Superflows were incredibly energy efficient at moving sediment. These flows are being simulated using computer modeling. As superflows slowed down, they lost their lifting force and hydroplane, and they became turbulent and frictional. Once turbulent and frictional, these flows deposited thick sediment layers in minutes, not millions of years. Three superflow deposits are being studied by FAST scientists: 1) a fossil-rich, seven-foot thick limestone layer within the Redwall Limestone of Grand Canyon; 2) a mile-thick conglomerate deposit on the plate-boundary fault in southern Alaska; and 3) a remarkable rock stratum called “puddingstone” within the Kingston Peak Formation in the Mojave Desert of Southern California. Power word 3: Megaflood—A colossal flow of fresh water usually overtopping a river valley and spilling widely across upland areas. Power sentence 3: As glaciers melted rapidly in the post-Flood glacial period, megafloods quickly sculpted a wide variety of familiar depositional landforms and a variety of familiar erosional landforms. Power abstract 3: During the time of the rapid post-Flood glaciation, enormous meltwater floods were released from water trapped under the ice and from temporary lakes marginal to the ice. FAST research is focused on three landforms diagnostic of catastrophic flood flow: drumlins, rat-tails, and streamlined erosional residuals. Research is focused on a landscape in British Columbia. FAST researchers also have experience with megaflood evidences in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington, the Snake River plain in Idaho, and the Santa Cruz River of Argentina. Power word 4: Superfault—A fracture within the earth along which there has been both extremely large and very rapid displacement during a single catastrophic event. Power sentence 4: During the global Flood, gigantic blocks of earth’s crust collapsed along rupture surfaces called superfaults, with displacement being so far and so fast that friction actually liquefied and melted rock! Power abstract 4: FAST research is demonstrating that modern faults do not slip very far or very fast as compared to ancient faults. Modern magnitude 8 earthquakes typically have thirty feet of displacement, with the rupture producing only broken rock powder by the friction. No melted rock is produced by modern magnitude 8 earthquakes. Ancient earthquakes occurred on fault surfaces where displacements exceeded thousands of feet in a single event. These huge rupture events produced superearthquakes on superfaults. Superfaults do not have just rock powder, but evidences of liquefied and melted rock phases within the fault surface. Therefore, friction generated in ancient faults is significantly more, and heat could not be conducted away from the fault surface fast enough—so fault rocks were melted! FAST scientists are studying liquefied rock on fault surfaces in mountains east of Yellowstone (Heart Mountain and South Fork detachment faults) and melted rock in faults on Kodiak Island, Alaska (Border Ranges Fault Zone). Colossal collapse events were associated with the global Flood. The FAST project was disbanded as a formal ICR research effort in 2010, but several of the individual scientists continue to conduct field work and report on their findings in various journals and conferences. Prior to the FAST project, Dr. Austin completed multiple research projects during his long tenure as Research Scientist at ICR. His interests included major geology studies at Grand Canyon,1, 2, 3, 4 Mount St. Helens,5, 6, 7 Yellowstone National Park,8 Mammoth Lakes, Yosemite National Park, Alaska, Argentina,9 and Israel.10 He and his students were responsible for developing a young-earth catastrophic Flood model for the formation of the strata exposed at Grand Canyon. He discovered an extensive layer of fossilized nautiloids midway down the Redwall Limestone of Grand Canyon, which invalidated the conventional explanation for the its formation in an ancient, placid sea. He developed an explanation for the rapid formation of Grand Canyon by the catastrophic release of entrapped Flood waters in the basins of northern Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado. He critiqued conventional long-age dates derived from radioisotope dating for rocks in the Grand Canyon, and was a member of the RATE project, which developed a young-earth explanation for the age of the earth. Dr. Austin made numerous trips to Mount St. Helens before and after it erupted in 1980, and investigated numerous geologic processes that supported a catastrophic Flood model, such as rapid erosion of solid rock; deposition of multiple sedimentary layers; and the development of fossil forests from upright tree layers in the bottom of Spirit Lake. His research on upright tree layers led to a revision to the conventional explanation for the formation of the fossil forests in Yellowstone National Park. Dr. Austin’s interest in Yellowstone National Park was mainly centered on the processes associated with the quiescent 30-mile diameter caldera located there. He extended his studies from Mount St. Helens to Yellowstone and Mammoth Lakes to understand the roles volcanoes played in the events of the Genesis Flood. He found that the volume of rock erupted from the explosive volcano in Yellowstone (Huckleberry Ridge Tuff) was 2,500 times greater than that from Mount St. Helens. The fallout also covered an area many times larger. The amount of blowoff from Huckleberry Ridge and Lava Creek in Yellowstone, Long Valley in Mammoth, Crater Lake, and Mount St. Helens over time illustrated the declining power with time of explosive eruptions in the Sierra Nevada. Dr. Austin and Dr. John Baumgardner explored the tectonic cataclysms on the western margin of North America. Austin’s field activities in the Sierra Nevada, the Cascades, and Wrangellia in Alaska, and Baumgardner’s modeling studies with TERRA provided ample evidence for massive plate motions and upheavals that are believed to have occurred during the Genesis Flood. The driving force for plate motions was hypothesized to be density differences between the earth’s lower crust and the mantle that led to catastrophic sinking of crustal plates. These motions led to circulations in the mantle and the formation of mid-ocean ridges and volcanoes. Dr. Austin made several field trips to the Santa Cruz River in southern Argentina, where Charles Darwin first began to develop his ideas on the theory of evolution. Dr. Austin found that Darwin misinterpreted the erosional and depositional features of the Santa Cruz River as slow and gradual modification over millions of years rather than catastrophic bursting of ice dams in the headwaters of the Andes. Darwin’s error led to his later development of evolution in the beaks of finches in the Galapagos Islands. Dr. Austin also traveled to Israel several times to help find Sodom and Gomorra and identify earthquake faults in the Dead Sea area. He located a north-south fault line that ran through “the cities of the Plain” at the southeastern end of the Dead Sea and may provide an explanation for the eruption of fire and brimstone that destroyed Sodom and Gomorra. Recently, after leaving ICR, he located a north-south fault on the western side of the Dead Sea near Masada that may have occurred at the time of Christ’s crucifixion, leading to several hours of darkness from the dust thrown into the air. Dr. Austin and Dr. Russell Humphreys published an article on estimating the age of the earth from the salt in the ocean. They considered the sources and sinks of salt entering and leaving the ocean and how low it may have taken.11 They estimated the maximum age of the oceans from its salt content to be less than 50 million years, giving the benefit to all the assumptions made by evolutionary scientists. This is much greater than the 4.5 billion years calculated by conventional means. Dr. Austin worked closely with Dr. Baumgardner on the tectonics of the earth, and especially in the western United States.12, 13 Dr. Baumgardner published a number of articles on his numerical modeling studies of tectonics and the Flood, and looked at the effects on mountain building in the Sierra Nevada and Alaska. In addition to his major contributions to the RATE project, Dr. Andrew Snelling also explored the effects of accelerated decay on the formation of granites. He found that the rapid formation of radiohalos also implied rapid cooling of granites. The rapid cooling of granite plutons in the Sierra Nevada and elsewhere requires a major revision to the theory of mountain building. Dr. Snelling reported on his various research projects in several articles14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and in a two-volume set of books entitled Earth’s Catastrophic Past.20 References Austin, S. A., 1994. Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe. Santee, CA: Institute for Creation Research. Austin, S. A. 2003. Nautiloid Mass Kill and Burial Event, Redwall Limestone (Lower Mississippian), Grand Canyon Region, Arizona and Nevada. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Ivey, Jr., R. L., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 55-100. Austin, S. A. and K. Wise. 1994. The Pre-Flood/Flood Boundary: As Defined in Grand Canyon, Arizona and Eastern Mojave Desert, California. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Walsh, R. E., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 37-47. Austin, S. A. 2005. Do Radioisotope Clocks Need Repair? Testing the Assumptions of Isochron Dating Using K-Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Pb-Pb Isotopes. In Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Research Initiative. Vardiman, L., A. A. Snelling and E. F. Chaffin, eds. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research and Chino Valley, AZ: Creation Research Society. Austin, S.A. 1986. Mount St. Helens and Catastrophism. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism. Crowell, R. S., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 3-9. Austin, S. A. 1984. Rapid Erosion at Mount St. Helens. In Origins. 11 (2): 90-98. Geoscience Research Institute, 11060 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350. Austin, S. A. 1996. Excess Argon within Mineral Concentrates from the New Dacite Lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Volcano. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal. 10 (3): 335-343. Austin, S. A. 1998. The Declining Power of Post-Flood Volcanoes. Acts & Facts. 27 (8). Austin, S. A. 2009. Darwin's First Wrong Turn. Acts & Facts. 38 (2): 26. Austin, S. A. 2010. Greatest Earthquakes of the Bible. Acts & Facts. 39 (10): 12-15. Austin, S. A. and D. R. Humphreys. 1990. The Sea's Missing Salt: A Dilemma for Evolutionists. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism. Walsh, R. E. and C. L. Brooks, eds. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 17-33. Austin, S. et al. 1994. Catastrophic Plate Tectonics: A Global Flood Model of Earth History. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Walsh, R. E., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 609-621. Baumgardner, J. 2003. Catastrophic Plate Tectonics: The Physics Behind the Genesis Flood. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Ivey, R. L., Jr., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 113-126. Snelling, A. A. and M. H. Armitage. 2003. Radiohalos: A Tale of Three Granitic Plutons. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Ivey, R. L., Jr., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 243-267. Snelling, A. A., S. A. Austin and W. A. Hoesch. 2003. Radioisotopes in the Diabase Sill (Upper Precambrian) at Bass Rapids, Grand Canyon, Arizona: An Application and Test of the Isochron Dating Method. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Ivey, R. L., Jr., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 269-284. Snelling, A. A. 2005. Radiohalos in Granites: Evidence for Accelerated Nuclear Decay. In Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Research Initiative. Vardiman, L., A. A. Snelling and E. F. Chaffin, eds. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research and Chino Valley, AZ: Creation Research Society. Snelling, A. A. 2005. Fission Tracks in Zircons: Evidence for Abundant Nuclear Decay. In Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Research Initiative. Vardiman, L., A. A. Snelling and E. F. Chaffin, eds. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research and Chino Valley, AZ: Creation Research Society. Armitage, M. H. and A. A. Snelling. 2008. Radiohalos and Diamonds: Are Diamonds Really for Ever? In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship and Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research, 323-334. Snelling, A. A. and D. Gates. 2009. Implications of Polonium Radiohalos in Nested Plutons of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, Yosemite, California. Answers Research Journal. 2 (2009): 53-78. Snelling, A. A. 2009. Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation, & the Flood. Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research. Click here to return to the main ICR Research page.

The COSMOS Project Similar to the Climate project, the Cosmos project started in 2006 after the RATE project ended, but it had begun when Dr. Russell Humphreys joined the ICR staff in 2001. The purpose of the project was to address the issue of starlight and time and any other fundamental cosmic processes that were associated with the issue of deep time. Humphreys published his book Starlight and Time before coming to ICR, but continued to refine his model while at ICR.1 He developed several applications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity that demonstrated that the effects of gravity on time dilation could be applied to the universe as a whole. His application of the general theory of relativity is the basis for understanding how processes at the edge of the universe can occur during a short period of earth time.2 Dr. Humphreys also identified several applications that demonstrated the superiority of his theory. For example, he has challenged the assumption that there is no center to the universe with new data that suggest that galaxies are positioned in concentric shells surrounding our solar system.3 Using his theory, Dr. Humphreys attempted to solve the disparity in the actual and calculated positions of the Voyager spacecraft as they departed our solar system.4 His idea that the universe expanded at the time of creation and the Genesis Flood may help explain the volumetric cooling needed during accelerated decay suggested in the RATE project.5 Dr. Humphreys published many of the advances to his theory after he left ICR. He continues to work on many additional improvements and applications.6, 7, 8 References Humphreys, D. R. 1994. Starlight and Time: Solving the Puzzle of Distant Starlight in a Young Universe. Green Forest, AR: Master Books. Humphreys, D. R. 2001. Seven Years of Starlight and Time. Acts & Facts. 30 8). Humphreys, D. R. 2002. The Battle for the Cosmic Center. Acts & Facts. 31 (8). Humphreys, D. R. 2007. Creation Cosmologies Solve Spacecraft Mystery. Acts & Facts. 36 (10): 10. Humphreys, D. R. 2005. Young Helium Diffusion Age of Zircons Supports Accelerated Nuclear Decay. In Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Research Initiative. Vardiman, L., A. A. Snelling and E. F. Chaffin, eds. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research and Chino Valley, AZ: Creation Research Society, 67-74. Vardiman, L. and D. R. Humphreys. 2010. A New Creationist Cosmology Part 1. Acts & Facts. 39 (11): 12-15. Vardiman, L. and D. R. Humphreys. 2011. A New Creationist Cosmology Part 2. Acts & Facts. 40 (1): 12-14. Vardiman, L. and D. R. Humphreys. 2011. A New Creationist Cosmology Part 3. Acts & Facts. 40 (2): 12-14. Click here to return to the main ICR Research page.

The EPIPHANY Project ICR purchased a 44-node parallel computer named EPIPHANY when Dr. John R. Baumgardner joined the ICR staff in 2002. It has the power of a small mainframe computer and is used for large numerical simulations of various natural processes. Dr. Baumgardner was the main designer and user of the machine for simulating tectonic and genetic processes. He continued development of his TERRA code after leaving Los Alamos National Laboratories, where he simulated the earth’s mantle and crustal dynamics during the Genesis Flood. From this effort, Baumgardner contributed to the Catastrophic Plate Tectonics model1 and continued its development and explanation.2, 3 EPIPHANY was used heavily in the development of the genetics code Mendel. The main members of the GENE team were:   John Sanford, Ph.D.   John R. Baumgardner, Ph.D.   Wesley Brewer, Ph.D.   Paul Gibson, Ph.D.   Walter ReMine, M.S. Dr. Baumgardner collaborated with Dr. Sanford in the development of Mendel’s Accountant, a simulation of mutation processes in animals and people.4, 5 Dr. Wesley Brewer assisted Dr. Baumgardner in writing application software and display packages. Mendel’s Accountant demonstrated that mutations never lead to increases in fitness of a species, but rather to a decline. Depending upon the initial conditions, which can be specified in the model, the fitness will decline at a greater or lesser rate. EPIPHANY remained at ICR after Baumgardner left, but he continues to use the machine for further development of Mendel’s Accountant and TERRA. Dr. Vardiman also uses EPIPHANY extensively, with Dr. Brewer’s assistance, to simulate various climates under revised boundary conditions. In particular, he has simulated heavy snowfall in the western mountains of the United States and hypercane development in the Middle East and Florida under warm sea-surface temperatures believed to have occurred during and following the Genesis Flood.6, 7, 8, 9 References Austin, S. et al. 1994. Catastrophic Plate Tectonics: A Global Flood Model of Earth History. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Walsh, R. E., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 609-621. Baumgardner, J. R. 2003. Catastrophic Plate Tectonics: The Physics Behind the Genesis Flood. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Ivey, R. L., Jr., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 113-126. Baumgardner, J. R. and D. W. Barnette. 1994. Patterns of Ocean Circulation over the Continents During Noah's Flood. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Walsh, R. E., ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, 77-86. Sanford, J. et al. 2008. Using Numerical Simulation to Test the Validity of Neo-Darwinian Theory. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship and Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research, 165-175. Sanford, J. et al. 2008. Mendel's Accountant: A New Population Genetics Simulation Tool for Studying Mutation and Natural Selection. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship and Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research, 87-98. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2010. Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a Warm Ocean: A Pineapple Express Case Study. Answers Research Journal. 3 (2010): 23-36. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2010. Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a Warm Ocean: Deep Upper Low and Rex Blocking Pattern Case Studies. Answers Research Journal. 3 (2010): 119-145. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2010. Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yellowstone National Park with a Warm Ocean: Continuous Zonal Flow, Gulf of Alaska Low, and Plunging Western Low Case Studies. Answers Research Journal. 3 (2010): 209-266. Vardiman, L. and W. Brewer. 2011. A Well-watered Land: Numerical Simulations of a Hypercyclone in the Middle East. Answers Research Journal. 4 (2011): 55-74. Click here to return to the main ICR Research page.

Smile... The Future's On Its Way by C.J. Horn The Future's on Its Way: A Perspective on Home The hardwood floor of our dining room would echo as my children and I sat at the table and stamped our feet on the floor. This "trampling" was part of our Bible memorization from Psalm 91. It occurred at verse 13: "Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet." That old house was one of the twenty-five places my children lived in during their years at "home" with mom and dad. The reason our children knew they had a home had very little to do with having the same address for any length of time. Not having the title deed to any piece of property probably forced our family to major on those things that all Christians can own and, of course, the ultimate home of all believers, the new Jerusalem. Jerusalem - Home A war over ownership of Jerusalem has been waged throughout history. This city is the most important city in all the world. It is not just that it is the capitol city of the Jew's so-called Promised Land, it is the site where history will culminate. Jerusalem will be the city of the eternal God. He will "establish it forever" (Psalm 48:8). Abraham "looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God" (Hebrews 11:10). This city is "that great city, the holy Jerusalem" that shall descend out of heaven from God (Revelation 21:10). In Psalm 48:12,13, the following command is given: Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may tell it to the generation following: The language of Psalm 28 was graphic when it came to the attention that was to be given Mount Zion. Note the following verbs: Walk About...Go Round...Tell...Mark Ye Well...Consider. It wasn't enough for the inhabitants of Jerusalem to reside in the city. They were to step back, take a very good long look, memorize the city, and then be sure that the generations following knew all about the city. For the Jews, living in the city of Jerusalem represented living with their God. The "Sons of Korah" for which Psalm 48 was written, were musicians in the Temple of God. At this particular point in history, Jerusalem (as Zion means here) was at the zenith of its power under the reigns of David and Solomon. In the admonition to memorize the city, there are three basic elements: bulwarks, towers, and palaces. The towers and palaces of Jerusalem speak of the physical attributes of the city. Historian Benjamin Mazar writes: "It must be remembered that the successive cities on the site of Jerusalem were subjected to a series of violent destructions by a variety of enemies. During the last three millennia, since the time of David, the city has undergone many drastic changes in shape and size, in its streets and structures, so that from one period to another, under different occupying authorities, the sense of continuity with the past was broken, and the knowledge of earlier forms of the city was lost." Although this is certainly the case, it is possible to put together from the Biblical record and from other historical writings a reasonable glimpse of this great city and its inhabitants that the Psalmist commanded to be memorized. Noted historian, Josephus, in his writings describes a legend that Jerusalem was originally built by Melchizedek. Melchizedek was "King of Salem" from which the name of Jerusalem could very well be derived. "It seems likely that the meeting between Abraham and the priest-king Melchizedek at the "King's Valley" (Genesis 14:17) took place near 'En-Rogel, outside the southern gate of the city." At any rate, the location of the city was strategically placed near the ample water supply known as the Spring of Gihon. "For before everything that is and has been Jerusalem, there was a spring called Gihon, which means "gushing." It lies in a cave at the foot of the eastern slope of the ridge or hill known as Ophel, as lively, it would seem, as when David first saw it 3,000 years ago." David conquered the Jebusite stronghold that we now know as the city of Jerusalem in 1000 B.C. When David conquered the city, he built "The City of David" at the edge of the high uneven tableland, 2500 feet above sea level where Jerusalem stands today. The Dead Sea, to the east, 1286 ft. below sea level, is less than twenty-five miles away. One can understand why David chose the site as an easily defensible fortress. Behind the City of David, on the third hill was the Upper City and between these two hills the Lower City. David enclosed this entire area, very nearly square, of approximately 175 acres, within one protective wall. In fact, David's improvements to the city were so extensive that Josephus considered his work a "rebuilding" of the city. Excavations at Jerusalem have revealed the enormity of the stones that were used to build the walls. The "great stones" needed for this purpose are mentioned in I Kings 5:17. Josephus says that some of them were as much as "forty cubits" (65 feet) long. In Solomon's day, at the height of Jerusalem, if one stood on the Mount of Olives to the east of the city and looked west, one could see the Temple to the right on the highest hill. It was here, at Mount Moriah, where Abraham offered Isaac many years before David or Solomon were born. It was to this temple mount that the Queen of Sheba came with camels of gold and all her retinue, but found herself utterly outshone. After seeing "the ascent by which Solomon went up into the house of the Lord," the apparel of his ministers and cupbearers and the greatness of his wisdom, she graciously conceded that it all exceeded her expectations. And she left Jerusalem with far more than she had brought. The Bible describes the incredible building project that Solomon undertook when he built the "house of the Lord" in Jerusalem. First Kings gives an account of the work that was to culminate in the incredible structures of the Temple of God and Solomon's palace. The building of the Temple alone kept over 30,000 men employed for seven years. In order to appreciate the financial resources that Solomon had at his disposal, the tribute in gold paid to him in a single year can be translated into current prices. "Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred threescore and six talents of gold" (1 Kings 10:14). Historians vary in the interpretation of the modern equivalent of the "talent." However, 66 pounds per talent is a conservative estimate. Sixty-six pounds multiplied by 666 is 43,956 pounds. Today's gold prices are set per "Troy" ounce, one of which is .914 percent of the more common "avoirdupois" ounce (16 ounces per lb.). Therefore, 43,956 pounds must be multiplied by 14.624 oz, rather than 16 ounces, to obtain the number of ounces in today's gold standards. The number of troy ounces of gold given in tribute to Solomon in the particular year mentioned in 1 Kings 10 was 642,812. In other words, Solomon could have said "money was no object" when it came to his building projects. Solomon's palace and the public parts of the Temple were massive, ornate, and splendid beyond our imagination. Twelve carved lions guarded his throne. The Bible testifies there was not anything to compare with them in "any kingdom" of that day (1 Kings 10:19). At the entrance of the palace, two pillars stood, each 27 feet high and eighteen feet in circumference. It would take three six-foot men holding hands to reach around one of them. Inside the Temple of God in the Holy of Holies, where the high priest entered alone once a year, two cherubim stood, carved of olive wood. Each measured fifteen feet high and fifteen feet wide at the wing tip. The tips of their wings touched each other in the center of the enclosure. Each creature was overlaid in gold, as was the floor and the walls and all the carved work of this magnificent structure dedicated to God. What About Bulwarks? The Psalmist also commanded his listeners to memorize the bulwarks of the city. A bulwark can be a defense of brick and mortar, but in the Biblical sense, it is much more. The bulwarks of Jerusalem were the forces that made it the greatest capitol city on earth at the time of Solomon. It's bulwarks were its men of truth who hated covetousness, men who were not afraid of hard work. Israel's valiant army numbered 1,300,000 men in the days of David the King. This army was lead by "mighty men of valor," with hearts like the heart of a lion. Their motto was "Through God we shall do valiantly, for He it is that shall tread down our enemies" (Psalm 60:12). Not only did the men of Israel represent the bulwark of its strength. Israel's women trusted God and exhibited the courage that kind of faith produces. They were women like Ruth and Esther. They exemplified the woman of Proverbs 31, whose "price is far above rubies." But above all that these men and women could be, it was their God that made them great. In David's great confession of faith in 2 Samuel 22, we see the heart of a king totally dependent upon God. "The Lord is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; The God of my rock; in him will I trust: He is my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, my savior; thou savest me from violence. I will call on the Lord, who is worthy to be praised ..." And in 1 Chronicles 29:11 we see that David gave credit to the King of Kings "Blessed be thou, LORD God of Israel our father, for ever and ever. Thine, O LORD, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty: for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is thine; thine is the kingdom, O LORD, and thou art exalted as head above all." Likewise, in Solomon's request for wisdom, we see his childlike dependence upon God. "And now, O LORD my God, thou hast made thy servant king instead of David my father: and I am but a little child...Give therefore thy servant an understanding heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad: for who is able to judge this thy so great a people?" (1 Kings 3:7,9). In God's response to Solomon, we see why Jerusalem became the capitol of the greatest nation on earth: "And the speech pleased the Lord... I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there was none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee" (Kings 3:10-11) The Bible is clear about the superiority of Israel at the time of Solomon: "So King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom. And all the earth sought to Solomon, to hear his wisdom, which God had put in his heart" (1 Kings 10:23-24). WHAT HAPPENED TO ZION? Eventually, because of the idolatry that began in Solomon's reign, and the slide to depravity, the blessing of God was removed from the great city. Jeremiah warned the third son of Josiah not to revolt against Nebuchadnezzar who had allowed him to retain rule in Jerusalem after its captivity, but his warnings went unheeded and the final curtain came down. The iniquity of Judah was full, and the doom of Jerusalem was ripe, and the madness of this miserable king sufficed to bring it down. After a siege of three years, during which the inhabitants suffered the last extremity of distress, the city was taken by the Chaldeans, who razed its walls to the ground, and destroyed its temple, its palaces, and its habitations, with fire. Terrible were the judgments of that day in which Jerusalem was taken. Exasperated by the defection which had rendered the war necessary, and by the protracted defense of the city, the Chaldeans refused all quarter to the inhabitants: they "slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon young man or maiden, old man, or him that stooped for age" (II Kings 25; II Chronicles. 36; Jeremiah 34). Thus, on the 9th day of the fifth month, Ab, in the year 588 BC., 803 years from the departure out of Egypt, and 416 years from the completion of the temple, was fully accomplished the terrible, but righteous doom which Moses had foretold should come to pass if the chosen people went astray from the Lord, and refused to observe His covenant" (Leviticus. 26:14-41; Deuteronomy 28). Jeremiah the prophet described it best in his lamentations: "How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! How is she become as a widow! She that was great among the nations, and princess among the provinces, How is she become tributary!" (Lamentations 1:1). It is no wonder those who were captured and carried away lamented: "By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion" (Psalm 137:1). The Children of Israel wept when they remembered a happy, prosperous nation whose God was the Lord. "Happy is that people, that is in such a case: yea, happy is that people, whose God is the LORD" (Psalm 144:15). WHY TELL GENERATIONS that FOLLOW? It is a recurring theme in Scripture to "tell the generations following" about the works of the Lord. Moses, in his great exhortation of Deuteronomy " cited the great things that God had done for all Israel and called upon them to obey Him. If they did not, the anger of the Lord would be unleashed against them and Israel would architect her own destruction. In Moses' writings there was always a look toward future generations. The secret things belong unto the Lord our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law. Deuteronomy 29:29. When the Children of Israel crossed the Jordan River on dry ground, the priests were to take twelve stones from the bottom "out of the place where the priests' feet stood firm" (Joshua 4) and carry them to their encampment on the west side of the Jordan River. These stones were to be "a sign" that, when the children asked their fathers in the future what they meant, they would be told how the waters were "cut off" while the ark of the covenant of the Lord passed over Jordan. The stones were to be for a "memorial unto the children of Israel for ever" (Joshua 4:6,7). Tell a Modern Generation About an Old City? Is it possible for all believers of all generations to know about the beautiful city of Psalm 48? It is certainly possible to study history and learn of the splendid city that caused the children of Israel to weep with longing and remembrance. But there is a far greater lesson to be learned from the admonition of Psalm 48:12,13: "Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may tell it to the generation following." It is vital to the faith of believing generations to come that they be told about a wondrous home that by comparison pales any earthly home. But, in teaching about the believer's eternal home, it would be natural to teach about the One who has gone to prepare that place, the Lord Jesus Christ. It would be necessary to talk about His saving grace and about how sin entered the world through Adam. Telling the generations following about Zion is telling them about God. That brings one back to our family's memory work with Psalm 91. It begins "He that dwelleth in the secret place of the most high shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty." We no longer live in the house with the wooden floor, but we have our memories of that dear old place. We took those with us. We also took with us a knowledge of the safe home "under the shadow of the Almighty" because we were able to spend time in God's Word, memorizing it and committing its truth to memory. Memorizing God's Word was our way of walking around our future home, and taking a good long look. Looking at Zion Although the Jerusalem that existed at the time of Kings David and Solomon is no longer, the Bible is our best record of the events that took place there. It was at Jerusalem where the King of Kings went to the cross. When man put to death the Son of Man, God hid the deed from human eyes for three hours. Nothing could ever again equal the terribleness and monstrous iniquity of that act. Yet in it lay the secret and means of man's redemption. For this supreme paradox Jerusalem was chosen before the worlds began. It is at Jerusalem where the empty tomb now stands as a memorial to the One over whom death has no power. It is at the Mount of Olives where Jesus will return to reign forever and ever. In the Word of God believers learn of the great city that is central to all human history. It is no wonder that the Psalmist told his listeners to scrutinize the city. For the children that lived when these words were penned, the memory of their fathers and mothers was the only record that would remain of that great and godly nation. Today we are much more fortunate. We have a written record, the Word of God. But it is our responsibility to teach the Word so well that it becomes part of the children's memory. So they too can learn to trust in a future eternal home. "They that trust in the Lord shall be as mount Zion which cannot be removed, but abideth for ever" (Psalm 125:1). That Fair Place My eyes will be fixed by Him on that fair place on the hills beyond. Despite all efforts, my father died with bone cancer at the age of 67. The above is a line from a poem I wrote on the day we found out the doctors had given up. It is one of the treasured hopes of the Christian that there will be a reunion with loved ones when we are all finally at home. John was allowed the privilege of seeing this place from the vantage point of a high mountain: And there came unto me one of the seven angels ... and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife. And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God ( Revelation 21:9-10). John gave details regarding this city in such a way that they should be taken literally. There are precise measurements of the city and the wall surrounding it (Revelation 21:15-17). There are twelve foundations for the wall encrusted with precious jewels (Revelation 21:19-20). There are twelve gates, each one made of pearl of a size beyond the imagination of man (Revelation 21:21). These gates are actually gateways that are never closed (Revelation 21:25). Many commentators have gone as far as to say that a city of this size and configuration is "absurd" Of course, they say this because they have never seen such a thing, nor can they imagine it. It is interesting that 1 Corinthians 2:9 says, "But as it is written, eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." If it is impossible for a Christian even to imagine such a city, it in no way negates the possibility that such a city awaits him. It is just a further proof that the Bible is true! Another truth to keep in mind as one thinks about our future home, is the power of God to create what He wills out of nothing. It is a foundation stone of our faith. Hebrews 11:3 states "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear." God did not create the first heaven and earth out of "things which do appear," so it is not beyond the realm of His power to create the "new heaven and a new earth" (Revelation 21:1) with building materials (including astronomically sized pearls) that we cannot even imagine, or which have never appeared before. The description of the glorious holy city, the new Jerusalem, is too detailed to admit anything but literal interpretation, though there have been many efforts to try to spiritualize it. There is every reason to believe that John is describing exactly what he saw, and that God means exactly what He says (note the warning in Revelation 22:18,19). In other words, the holy city is a literal city on a literal earth, with dimensions and descriptions exactly as recorded. To place man's own interpretation on a passage that does not invite it leaves the whole of Scripture open to private interpretation. The best interpretation of Scripture is no interpretation. On the other hand, translation is not interpretation. It is necessary to find modern meanings for several words in the description of the new city of Jerusalem. The measurements employed describing the city in Revelation 21 are "furlongs" and "cubits." A furlong is the Greek term "stadia" which is equal to 600 Greek feet, or approximately 607 English feet. The city measures "foursquare" (a cube) 12,000 furlongs. Twelve thousand forlongs multiplied by 607 feet=7,284,000 feet. Translated into miles (@5280 feet per), 12,000 furlongs equals approximately 1,380 miles! The city itself is "foursquare," meaning it is shaped like a cube, and each side of the cube measures 1,380 miles (length, width, and height). John's reported measurement of the wall is 144 "cubits." The standard measurement for a cubit was approximately 18" or the length from a man's elbow to the tip of his finger. This means the measurement stated for the wall is approximately 216 feet. It would not be logical to have a wall 216 feet high surrounding a city that is over 1300 miles high. Therefore, it is probable that John was giving the measurement for the thickness of the wall. The wall most probably is as tall as the city itself (1380 miles), with twelve gateways (each of one pearl) and twelve foundation stones. Each one of these foundation stones are "garnished with all manner of precious stones" (Revelation 21:19). John is detailed in the type of precious stones that appear throughout the city. The wall is like "jasper" (translucent, reflecting primarily radiant white, with red and purple tints), "the city was pure gold" (Revelation 21:18), the foundation stones are encrusted with sapphires (beautiful blue), chalcedony (copper colored), emerald (shining green), sardonyx (deep red layers interspersed with white), sardius (brilliant and red), chrysolite (glowing yellow), beryl (yellow), topaz , chrysoprasus (golden tinted green), jacinth (blue, possibly aquamarine), and amethyst (purple). It is no wonder when John saw the city, he said it looked as if it were "prepared as a bride adorned for her husband" (Revelation 21:2). The reason it is important to take literally the description of heaven is that it is not just the physical attributes of the city that believers long for. It is in the description of the New Jerusalem of Revelation 21 that the often quoted promises of eternity are found: There will be "no more death, neither sorry, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain" (Revel 21:4). It is here that God "will dwell with" His people. He is "Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end", and He promises "I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely" (Revelation 21:6). Not only is the city of pure gold, the water is pure, as well. John was shown "a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb" (Rev 22:1). On either side of this river of life grows the tree of life, which bears twelve different kinds of fruit. Home at Last Our family will probably log many more miles and accumulate many more addresses before this life is over. But it is certain that there will be a final home for us. When we get there, there will be no feeling of being the new kid on the block. In fact, we are told that then shall we know even as we have been known (1 Corinthians 13:12). Ecclesiastes 7:1 tells us that the day of our death is better than the day of our birth. Paul said "to die is gain" (Philippians 1:21). This present life is full of trials and tragedies, but no matter how fraught with trouble life is, time moves on, and the future will come. It is for that reason that we confidently smile. "As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness" (Psalm 17:15). « Why the Future is Secure Remembrance »

The Moon Creation and Composition: The Apollo Missions by Duane T. Gish* A discussion of the accomplishments of the Apollo Program. What did we learn about the origin, the nature and the age of the moon? Since the fourth day of creation, a beautiful silvery object we call the moon has orbited the earth, flooding the landscape with a soft light that engenders romantic expressions in poetry, song, and in the minds of earth-bound creatures. Earthbound, that is, until July 20, 1969, when the landing module of Apollo 11 touched down on the surface of the moon, and for the first time in the history of mankind, humans actually had their abode, as temporary as it was, on a body other than the earth. The three astronauts who participated in that visit to the surface of the moon spent a little less than two and a quarter hours walking on the moon, returning with 21.7 kilograms (about 47.7 pounds) of rock samples from the surface. This historic event was an accomplishment that astounded the world and thrilled a proud nation. Many of us remember looking at the moon during that time in awesome wonder realizing that there were human beings actually walking on its surface at that very moment. Thus, this month, July 1994, twenty-five years later, we commemorate that amazing event. Since that time, five other manned U.S. space craft have landed on the moon, culminating with the touchdown of the landing module from Apollo 17 on December 11, 1972. Each time samples of soil and rock were returned to the earth for analysis, the final sample from Apollo 17 amounting to 110.5 kilograms, or about 243 pounds. For the crews of the last three expeditions, Apollo 15, 16, and 17, a lunar vehicle, Rover, enabled the astronauts to cover distances up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) during their explorations and sampling forays. Now, after a quarter of a century, it is time to look back and reflect on what has been accomplished as a result of these human excursions on the surface of the moon, as well as the many unmanned landings on its surface, both preceding and following the manned landings. What were the expressed purposes and goals of those who planned, executed, and analyzed the results of these visits to the moon? Just what inspired this monumental effort of human endeavor and expenditure of huge amounts of money, and indirectly, cost the lives of three American astronauts while in training at Houston? Was it national pride? Was it real hope for practical results, or was it simply a desire to confirm theories on the evolutionary origin of the moon and the solar system? Certainly national pride was involved, as the U.S. was engaged with the Russians in a race to put the first man on the moon, but there is no doubt that the motivation of those planning and directing the project was to investigate the origin of the moon and to confirm one of the several theories concerning its evolutionary origin. Creation scientists, based on the clear and unequivocal statements in the Word of God, and firmly supported by well-established natural laws and the failure of all theories on the evolutionary origin of the universe, accept the supernatural, special creation of the universe, which, of course, includes the origin of the solar system with its earth and moon. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: He made the stars also (Genesis 1:14-16). By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth. For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast (Psalm 33:6,9). Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; and He rested or the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it He had rested from all His work which God created and made (Genesis 2:1 3). Thus, using special processes operating nowhere in the natural universe today, God created all the heavenly bodies, including the earth, the moon, the sun, and all the other objects in the solar system. Furthermore, Scripture makes clear that at the close of the sixth day of creation God had finished the work of creating the universe�the heavens and the earth for He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. Evolutionists, on the other hand, reject any explanation for the origin of the universe that involves God, or supernatural intervention of any kind. Thus, the late Professor Harlow Shapley, an astronomer at Harvard University, declared, "Some people piously proclaim, in the beginning God. I say, in the beginning hydrogen." Evolutionists are forever seeking after and exploring naturalistic theories concerning the origin of the universe and what they believe to be the subsequent origin of second and third generation stars. Naturally, these theories include those concerning the origin of the solar system, and the origin of particular objects within that system, including the earth and moon. In October of 1984, a conference on the origin of the moon convened in Kona, Hawaii. During the two-and-a-half day conference, 58 papers by 62 lunar scientists were presented. The results of the conference were published in 1986 in a volume entitled, Origin of the Moon. 1 In the preface (p.vii) it is stated that ". . . solving the mystery of the Moon's origin was billed as a major goal of lunar exploration." After a dozen years of analyzing all the data gathered from the samples of soil and rocks of the moon, and analyzing thermal,magnetic,and seismic data gathered by instruments placed on the moon or in orbital subsatellites, what can be said of success or failure of efforts to solve the mystery of the origin of the moon? Let us again quote from the Preface of the above-mentioned volume: "As it turned out, neither the Apollo astronauts, the Luna vehicles, nor all the kings horses and all the kings men could assemble enough data to explain circumstances of the Moon's birth" (p.vii). What these data were sufficient to do was to falsify all the theories on the origin of the moon that had been contenders up until that time. One of the participants in the conference was the geochemist Stuart Ross Taylor of the Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra. He was paraphrased by Sean Solomon, another participant, as follows: 2 Taylor's Axiom: The best models of lunar origin are the testable ones. Taylor's Corollary: The testable models for lunar origin are wrong. David Hughes, in his review of the book edited by Hartmann, Phillips, and Taylor, says, "In astronomical terms, therefore, the Moon must be classed as a well-known object, but astronomers still have to admit shamefacedly that they have little idea as to where it came from. This is particularly embarrassing, because the solution of the mystery was billed as one of the main goals of the U.S. lunar exploration programme." 3 Does all of this prove that creation scientists have been shown to be correct, and all attempts to contrive an evolutionary explanation for the origin of the moon will be abandoned? Of course not. But the results so far are precisely what creation scientists expected. That is, no theory postulating a naturalistic, mechanistic, evolutionary origin of the moon will be consistent with the actual data derivable from the moon because it did not arise as the result of such a process. On the other hand, if the data could be made to conform to an evolutionary theory on the moon's origin, reasonable or not, evolutionists would be proclaiming victory. Headlines on the front pages of practically every major newspaper in the world would have proclaimed, "Moon data solve mystery of its origin." Of course, no such headlines appeared. To evolutionists, in spite of the wealth of data gathered from our visits to the moon, or perhaps we should say, because of the data obtained from our visits to the moon, its origin remains as mysterious as ever. THEORIES ON ORIGIN OF THE: MOON Three theories concerning the evolutionary origin of the moon have been dominant until very recently. These are the intact capture theory, the coaccretion theory, and the fission theory. With the data retrieved from lunar explorations, manned and unmanned, of the past three decades, severe constraints have been placed on theories of the moon's origin. Our moon is far more massive, relative to the earth, than is the moon or satellite system of any other planet, except, possibly, the relative size of Charon, the moon of Pluto. The angular momentum of the earth-moon system (that is, a combination of the forces due to the rotation of the earth on its axis and the orbit of the moon around the earth) is anomalously large when compared to the angular momentum density of other planets, and any theory on its origin must account for this large angular momentum. A study of Apollo samples showed that the rocks and soils of the moon are severely depleted in volatile elements and greatly enhanced in refractory elements. The moon is greatly deficient in iron, containing only about one-fourth of the cosmic abundance of this element. This is one of the strongest constraints, along with the data on angular momentum, that limit theories on the origin of the moon. However, the oxygen isotope signature of lunar material (the ratios of 16^O, 17^O, and 18^O) is identical to that of the earth. It is believed that oxygen isotopic ratios vary with position in the solar system. Thus, the similarity of oxygen isotopic ratios of the earth and moon would require their evolutionary origin from similar bodies of protoplanetary material, at the same radial distance from the sun. INTACT CAPTURE THEORY This theory was widely popular in the 1960s (and still has some defendants), but has largely fallen into disfavor. It was postulated that the earth and moon formed in widely separated parts of the solar system and were later joined as the moon was captured by the earth. This would supposedly account for the large differences in elemental composition, particularly the large difference in iron content of the earth and moon. Later it was realized that the moon could not have been captured if it originated in a remote region of the solar system since its encounter with the earth would have occurred at a relative high velocity, which would have rendered capture virtually impossible. Of course this theory, if acceptable, would have only explained the union of the earth and moon into its present system. The intact capture theory offers no explanation for the origin of either the earth or the moon. COACCRETION THEORY The modern coaccretion theory postulates that the earth, during its accretion, accumulated a disk of solid particles orbiting the proto-earth. These particles then accreted to form the moon. Because this theory does not involve wildly implausible ad hoc assumptions, it has been favored by many lunar scientists. This theory, however, encounters serious difficulties. It cannot account for the angular momentum of the earth-moon system, the differences in the chemical compositions of the earth and moon (which should be very similar if the earth and moon accreted from material in the same region of the solar system), and the assumed melting of the magma ocean of the moon. FISSION THEORY George H. Darwin, the son of Charles Darwin, announced his fission theory for the origin of the moon in 1878. Based on the observed secular acceleration of the moon (the rate of increase in orbital velocity and thus its movement away from the earth), Darwin worked backward to a state in which he postulated the earth and moon would have consisted of a common, molten, viscous mass, rotating rapidly with a period of approximately five-and-one-half-hours. He invoked the sun's tidal action to trigger fission, a mass approximately equal to the mass of the moon spinning off from the rapidly rotating earth mass. Others later suggested that the Pacific Ocean Basin was the scar left over from the separation of the material which constituted the moon. By the end of the 19th century, Darwin's theory was widely accepted and had taken its position among other myths made popular by widely disseminated scientific notions. In 1936, a children's radio program made available by the United States Office of Education included the following: 4 FRIENDLY GUIDE: Have you heard that the moon once occupied the space now filled by the Pacific Ocean? Once upon a time--a billion or so years ago, when the Earth was still young--a remarkable romance developed between the Earth and the Sun--according to some of our ablest scientists. In those days the Earth was a spirited maiden who danced about the princely Sun--was charmed by him--yielded to his attraction, and became his bride. The Sun's attraction raised great tides upon the Earth's surface. The huge crest of a bulge broke away with such momentum that it could not return to the body of mother Earth. And this is the way the Moon was formed! GIRL: How exciting! Professor Harold Jeffries of England, one of the world's foremost astronomers of that time, refuted some of the objections to the fission theory in 1917, and became one of its strongest proponents, helping to reestablish its position as a credible theory following attacks against this idea by a number of astronomers. However, in 1930, Jeffries discovered what he considered to be a fatal objection to the theory, having to do with the earth's viscosity and its effect in dampening the motions required to generate a resonant vibration necessary to induce fission. Thus, switching from the position of one of its strongest proponents of the fission theory, he became one of its most elective opponents. As pointed out by Stuart Ross Taylor and others, according to the fission hypothesis, the bulk composition of the moon should resemble that of the mantle of the earth, but there are substantial differences. In rejecting the fission hypothesis, Taylor lists seven critical objections to the theory. 5 Earlier, reference was made to the secular acceleration of the moon. The gravitational effect of the moon creates tides on the oceans of the earth. Due to the speed of rotation of the earth, these tidal bulges precede the moon's changing location in space. This fact causes the earth's rotation to slow slightly, and the moon is pulled forward in its orbit by the gravitational pull of the tidal bulges, increasing its orbital speed, causing the moon to move away from the earth. Laser-ranging instruments measure the earth-moon distance to within a few centimeters and have determined the rate of separation to be a few centimeters per year. The rate of separation, based on uniformitarian assumptions, would have been greater in the past. 6 According to some calculations, it would have taken no more than about 1.8 billion years, and possibly even less, for the moon to reach its present position from any possible minimal position. 7 If this is true, evolutionists must either abandon the fission theory or their ideas about the age of the earth. There is little doubt that they would give up the former rather than the latter. Fission theory has few supporters today. COLLISION EJECTION THEORY The capture, coaccretion, and fission theories of lunar origin had dominated the thinking of evolutionary theorists up until the results of the Apollo explorations on the moon raised fatal objections to these theories. A new theory was desperately needed, causing theorists on the origin of the moon to rethink the whole problem. Not yet willing to admit that the problem is intractable (most would never consider supernatural creation), and never short on imagination, these theorists have come up with a new idea: collision ejection theory. This theory postulates that during the final stages of its accretion, the earth was struck by a large planetesimal. According to this hypothesis, some of the material ejected by the collision went into orbit around the earth and formed the moon. This theory has come into prominence only recently, first of all because it is now much in need. Two serious objections to such a theory had previously existed. First, it would have involved a collision with a planetesimal as large as 0.1 earth mass, and it was believed up until recently that objects impacting the earth towards the end of its accretion were no larger than about one thousandth earth mass. Secondly, up until then it seemed obvious that material ejected off the earth would return to the earth and reaccrete after one geocentric orbit. Now, as Wood describes, 8 some astrophysicists have decided that collision during planetary accretion with planetesimals as large as 0.1 earth mass is actually to be expected. Other theorists struggled with the second problem and postulated that most of the debris ejected by a collision of two bodies already hot and partially molten could be in the form of a vapor rather than solids. This would get some of the material into orbit around the earth in position to form the moon. This theory on the origin of the moon involves a series of assumptions, by nature of which most are untestable. No attempt has been made to account for the chemical composition of the moon that would have been produced by formation of the moon by collisional ejection. Wood states, "This hypothesis is so new that its weaknesses have not yet become apparent." 9 It is popular today only because of the consistent failure of all other models. We can say with great confidence, then, that the results of the Apollo explorations to the moon, and data from all other sources as well, contradict and frustrate all human efforts to provide a naturalistic evolutionary origin of the moon. The uniqueness of the moon, as is also increasingly apparent from every other object in the solar system, is providing powerful, positive evidence for their special creation by God as proclaimed in Genesis and throughout all Scripture. DATING OF MOON ROCKS AND SOIL The supposed age of 4.5 billion years of the earth is actually based on radiometric age determinations of meteorites. Radiometric dating methods are based on a series of assumptions, and thus the accuracy of the method depends, of course, on the reliability of these assumptions. These assumptions have been questioned, and the vastages thus derived have been challenged. 10-12 Even if such methods were reliable, the catastrophic effects and reworking of the surface of the moon brought about by the bombardment of the moon by planetesimals and meteorites, especially as envisioned by evolutionary scientists, would render the dating of the origin of the moon by these methods impossible. It is often claimed that the age of the earth and of the solar system of about 4.5 billion years was confirmed by ages obtained for the moon. Actually, ages obtained for various moon rocks showed a very large spread, some giving a sample age of 20 billion years. The following table, reproduced from Whitcomb and DeYoung, 13 is based on data compiled by John G. Read, and shows some of the variations for Apollo sample material. Taylor also discusses some of the problems generated by ages obtained Jon lunar soil and rocks. He points out that soils in the maria had model rubidium-strontium ages of about 4.6 billion years, although they were supposedly derived from rocks which, according to radiometric dating methods, were only 3.6-3.8 billion years old; an impossible situation. Some soils gave model ages even greater than 4.6 billion years, the supposed age of the solar system. Taylor rejects these ages out of hand since, he declares, there is so much evidence indicating the formation of the solar system about 4.6 billion years ago. These ages are thus rejected as unacceptable. 14 Once it had been assumed that dating of meteorites had established the age of the solar system at approximately 4.6 billion years, evolutionists have clung tenaciously to that age, and calibrate events in earth history accordingly. Gale, Arden, and Hutchison, however, have discovered serious problems with the data from meteorites and the assumptions on which ages of these meteorites were derived, which had supposedly established an age of 4.5 billion years for the solar system. They declared, "We suspect that the lack of concordance may result in some part from the choice of isotope ratios for primitive lead, rather than from lead gain or uranium loss. It therefore follows that the whole of classical interpretation of the meteorite lead isotope data is in doubt, and that the radiometric estimates of the age of the Earth are placed in jeopardy. 15 This is not to infer that these scientists are declaring that the earth may be young, but certainly the 4.6 billion years religiously assumed by evolutionists for the age of the earth may be in serious doubt according to these scientists. Furthermore, as described in the books by Whitcomb and Morris 11 and H. M. Morris, 12 there are a great number of physical processes that indicate a young age for the earth and solar system. It can be said that in dating moon rocks, radio chronologists have applied the same assumptions used in methods to date rocks on the earth, which may be totally invalid. Their interpretation of the order of events on the moon and the nature of various components of the surface of the moon, therefore, may be completely erroneous. SUMMARY In his summing-up of the Kona conference on the origin of the moon, Wood states that the shift of confidence by lunar scientists in favor of the collision ejection model did not occur because strong evidence was presented that the moon was formed that way, or even that it was possible, but simply because the coaccretion model, most widely favored up until that time, was effectively disproved. 16 As Hughes stated, astrophysicists are actually embarrassed because of their admission, following the Apollo visits to the moon, that they still have little idea where the moon came from. 3 The Apollo missions to the moon, as well as the unmanned landings on the moon by Russian and American spacecraft, were a great scientific accomplishment, and the first step of Neil Armstrong on the moon on July 20, 1969, will always be remembered as one of the most memorable events in earth history, "One small step for man, but a giant leap forward for mankind." And in spite of, or better because of, all the data derived from these visits to the moon, we can say with greater confidence than ever that the best statement we can make, scientifically, concerning the origin of the moon is still . . . REFERENCES W.K Hartmann, R.J. Phillips, and G.J. Taylor, Eds., Origin of the Moon, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX, 1986. W.K. Hartmann, et al, ibid. p. vi. David Hughes, Nature, vol. 327, p. 291 (1987). Stephen G. Brush, "Early History of Selenogony," in W.K. Hartmann, et al, ibid., p. 9. Stuart Ross Taylor, Planetary Science: A Lunar Perspective, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, IX, 1982, p. 425. J.C. Whitcomb and D.B. DeYoung, The Moon--Its Creation, Form, and Significance, BMH Books, Winona Lake, IN, 1978, p. 39. R.B. Baldwin, A Fundamental Survey of the Moon, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1965, p. 40 (as quoted by Whitcomb and DeYoung, Ref. 6). John A. Wood, "Moon Over Mauna Loa: A Review of Hypotheses of Formation of Earth's Moon," in W.K Hartmann, et al, ibid., p. 42. John A. Wood, ibid., p. 44. J.C. Whitcomb and D.B. DeYoung, ibid., p. 99. J.C. Whitcomb and H.M. Morris, The Genesis Flood, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1961, pp. 333-344. H.M. Morris, Scientific Creationism, 2nd Ed., Creation-Life Publishers, Colorado Springs, CO, 1985, pp. 137-149. J.C. Whitcomb and D.B. DeYoung, ibid., p.100 (reproduced by permission). S.R. Taylor, ibid., pp. 123-126. N. Gale, J. Arden, and R. Hutchison, Nature (Physical Sciences), vol. 240, p. 57 (1972). John A. Wood, ibid., p. 47. * At time of publication, Dr. Duane T. Gish was Senior Vice President of the Institute for Creation Research. He has written extensively on the scientific implications of the biblical doctrine of creation.

ICR Research at a Glance Investigating the science that confirms biblical creation Astronomy Distant Starlight Project: answering the question of how starlight can arrive within the biblical time frame Intergalactic Structures Project: analyzing SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) data for patterns that challenge Big Bang assumptions Genetics Human Genome Project: disproving the myth that humans and chimps have 98% identical DNA Chimp Genome Project: reconstructing the chimp genome without evolutionary assumptions Climate Refuting Milankovitch Project: exposing circular and inconsistent reasoning in secular methodologies Pre-Flood Climate Project: reconstructing antediluvianconditions to confirm creation Fossils Dinosaur Proteins Project: characterizing the nature and extent of short-lived fossil biomaterials like intact vertebrate proteins and elements such as radiocarbon found inside dinosaur and other ancient bones Geology Column Project: analyzing rock layers globally to reconstruct the stages of the Genesis Flood and explain why certain fossils are found only in certain areas, and to determine the approximate topography of the pre-Flood world Physics Radiometric Dating Project: exposing the errors in secular dating methods to negate deep time Accelerated Decay Project: analyzing the conditions under which decay can be accelerated Isotope Project: analyzing samples for intermediate half-life elements to refute deep time Anatomy Organism Interface Project: applying engineering principles to reveal biological details of how organisms successfully relate with their environments and with other organisms Keep Up to Date on ICR Research Scientific research sometimes leads to unexpected but exciting conclusions. Stay abreast of ICR’s research results with updates on how our four sub-projects are progressing. Magazine articles Technical articles Meet the ICR Science Team Who are the scientists engaged in ICR’s mission to conduct quality scientific research within the realms of origins and earth history? Meet the team of individuals who are applying their training and expertise to questions that impact our understanding of the Genesis account of creation, the Flood, and beyond. Read the bios of the ICR Science Team. A Legacy of Creation Science Research For over 40 years, ICR has been the leader in scientific research from a biblical perspective, conducting innovative laboratory and field research in the major disciplines of science, as well as in ancient biblical studies. The institute’s mission has been to advance quality research that impacts our understanding of the creation model as described in Genesis. Since ICR’s founding by Dr. Henry Morris in 1970, ICR scientists have endeavored to utilize their research to demonstrate the evidence for creation as understood in Scripture, with the ultimate goal of magnifying the Creator. “For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.” (Romans 1:20) Learn more about the history of ICR. Click below to review previous ICR research initiatives. The RATE Project The CLIMATE Project The FAST Project The COSMOS Project The EPIPHANY Project

For many people, radiometric dating might be the one scientific technique that most blatantly seems to challenge the Bible’s record of recent creation. For this reason, ICR research has long focused on the science behind these dating techniques. Along with scores of other Bible-believing geologists, ICR scientists have made key observations that compel us to reject the millions-of-years apparent ages that these techniques yield: First, rocks of known age always show vastly inflated radioisotope “ages.” Second, various radioisotope methods or even various attempts using the same method yield discordant ages more often than concordant ages. Third, many dating methods that don't involve radioisotopes—such as helium diffusion, erosion, magnetic field decay, and original tissue fossils—conflict with radioisotope ages by showing much younger apparent ages. These observations give us confidence that radiometric dating is not trustworthy. Research has even identified precisely where radioisotope dating went wrong. See the articles below for more information on the pitfalls of these dating methods. Fluctuations Show Radioisotope Decay Is Unreliable Radioactive isotopes are commonly portrayed as providing rock-solid evidence that the earth is billions of years old. Since such isotopes are thought to decay at consistent rates over time, the assumption is that simple measurements can lead to reliable ages. But new discoveries of rate fluctuations continue to challenge the reliability of radioisotope decay rates in general—and thus, the reliability of vast ages seemingly derived from radioisotope dating. More...Questionable Dating of Bloody Mosquito Fossil The discovery of fresh blood in a spectacular mosquito fossil strongly contradicts its own "scientific" age assignment of 46 million years. What dating method did scientists use, and did it really generate reliable results? More...Radioactive Decay Rates Not StableFor about a century, radioactive decay rates have been heralded as steady and stable processes that can be reliably used to help measure how old rocks are. They helped underpin belief in vast ages and had largely gone unchallenged. But certain decay rates apparently aren’t as stable as some would hope. More...The Sun Alters Radioactive Decay Rates Many scientists rely on the assumption that radioactive elements decay at constant, undisturbed rates and therefore can be used as reliable clocks to measure the ages of rocks and artifacts. Most estimates of the age of the earth are founded on this assumption. However, new observations have found that those nuclear decay rates actually fluctuate based on solar activity. More...Can Radioisotope Dating Be Trusted?"And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day." (Genesis 1:5) More...Investigating Polonium Radiohalo OccurrencesPolonium radiohalos remain "a very tiny mystery." More...Myths Regarding Radiocarbon Dating The field of radiocarbon dating has become a technical one far removed from the naive simplicity which characterized its initial introduction by Libby in the late 1940's. It is, therefore, not surprising that many misconceptions about what radiocarbon can or cannot do and what it has or has not shown are prevalent among creationists and evolutionists - lay people as well as scientists not directly involved in this field. In the following article, some of the most common misunderstandings regarding radiocarbon dating are addressed, and corrective, up-to-date scientific creationist thought is provided where appropriate. More...Radiocarbon in "Ancient" Fossil Wood The presence of measurable radiocarbon in fossil wood supposedly tens and hundreds of millions of years old has been well-documented. More...

Measuring the rate at which worldwide processes function provides a "clock" by which the age of the earth may be calculated. Many of these processes yield thousands of years, rather than billions. Diamonds and Strata Have Too Much Carbon 14 Carbon 14 has been measured within natural diamonds, evidence that the earth is thousands of years old. More... Minerals Have Too Much Helium Zircon crystals in granite contains helium, which diffuses quickly out of zircon. This shows that granite was formed recently. More... The Sea Does Not Have Enough Minerals Every year, more salt enters the ocean from rivers. At present rates, seawater is not as salty as it should be if the oceans were ancient. More... Ice Cores Fit with Recent Creation Scientists claim ice cores show hundreds of thousands of years, but the evidence points to ice sheets forming just thousands of years ago. More...

Natural diamonds are believed to have been formed deep underground in the upper mantle of the earth’s crust. Under extreme temperature and pressure, pure carbon is formed into the diamond’s crystalline form. Over time, the diamond is moved upwards by rising magma. Natural diamonds are commonly believed to have been formed millions of years ago. If the rate carbon-14 decays has been consistent, any carbon-14 older than 100,000 years is undetectable by current measuring techniques. But carbon-14 has been measured within natural diamonds. Either the decay rate of carbon-14 is not uniform, the diamonds are younger than believed, or both. Carbon-14 in diamonds is evidence that the earth is thousands of years old, not millions.

The shiny black specks in granite are mica. Within mica are natural zircon crystals, only a few microns in size. Helium quickly diffuses out of zircon. If the granite is millions of years old, as commonly believed, all the helium should be gone. However, measurements indicate that much of the helium still remains. Either the diffusion rate of the helium is not uniform, the zircon crystals are younger than believed, or both. Helium in granite is evidence that the earth is thousands of years old, not millions.

There is not enough salt in the sea or mud on the sea floor for the seas to be billions of years old. Every year, salt accumulates in the ocean from rivers. Given the present rate it is increasing per year, the current 3.5 percent ocean salinity is much too low if this process has been going on for a very long time. Mud enters the seas through rivers and dust storms. This occurs at much faster rates than plate tectonic subduction can remove it. Each year, 19 billion tons of mud accumulates. If the oceans were ancient, the oceans would be choked with sediment dozens of kilometers deep.

Meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena, including weather processes and climate trends. Through experiments, scientists gain a more complete understanding of what makes weather work. Through modeling, meteorologists can project the workings of weather to predict such things as storm tracks and intensities. The same modeling technology is also used to extrapolate the workings of weather into the past. These standard models have been used, for example, to calculate the intensity of huge storms that piled massive amounts of frozen precipitation onto continents, which initiated the post-Flood Ice Age. Evidence for Global WarmingIntroduction More...Global Warming? Trees to the Rescue! A recent collaboration of scientists found that forests "have become dramatically more efficient in how they use water," and the key to that efficiency was an uptick in atmospheric carbon dioxide. More...Leaked Emails May Show Global Warming Research Is a FraudOver a thousand sensitive emails and documents from Britain’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia were published online in late November without CRU’s permission. Some of their content suggests that the data used to support the theory of human -caused global warming have not been accurately represented. More...Global Warming Halts, Arctic Ice Multiplies How could polar ice increase if man-made pollutants—which have not appreciably diminished of late—continue to heat the earth, melt glaciers, and kill polar bears? Something is missing from the models scientists are using to make contradictory climate predictions. More...Oil Companies, Global Warming, and Hurricanes: How Does Real Science Analyze Cause and Effect? The prophet Jeremiah once vigorously argued with Jewish men and women who insisted that their troubles were caused by a failure to worship the queen of heaven. People today might sneer at such irrational idolatry, but is modern society immune from illogical and superstitious thinking? Perhaps we can learn a lesson in logic by comparing Jeremiah's situation to a bizarre lawsuit over damage caused by Hurricane Katrina. More...Rainforest Fossils Demonstrate Dramatic Climate Change Researchers are recovering beautiful fossils from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia. Most recently, a study examined the formation’s fossilized flora and the rainforest environment in which they lived. There is evidence of dramatic ocean surface temperature changes, as well as global and local climate changes, since the formation was deposited. More...

Are Humans as Close to Chickens as They Are to Chimps?A recent comprehensive analysis compared the human Y chromosome with the chimpanzee Y chromosome, and the researchers found that they were “remarkably divergent.” Most of their findings do not fit well with the often-repeated erroneous statement that humans and chimps are 98 percent similar, nor with the more general hypothesis that they share a common ancestor. More...Chimp DNA Mutation Study—Selective Yet Surprising A popular evolutionary belief is that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor 2 to 6 million years ago. Apparently, evolutionists still aren't too sure of their own theory: now they've more than doubled that timeline. More...Chromosome Comparison Shows More Chimp-Human Differences Since the original 2005 chimpanzee genome report, researchers obtained and made available for public use additional chimpanzee DNA sequences, courtesy of federal tax dollars.1 However, this new chimpanzee DNA sequence is somewhat flawed—it is not represented on its own merit because researchers assembled the chimp genome’s sequence fragments based on the human genome framework.2, 3 More...Evaluating the Human-Chimp DNA Myth--New Research DataA recent presentation at the 2011 Creation Biology Society (CBS) meetings has stirred the pot once again on the human-chimp DNA similarity issue among creationists, intelligent design proponents, and some evolutionists.1 It was reported that a query of 40,000 chimp genomic DNA sequences against the most recent assembly of the human genome provided an average similarity estimate of 97 to 98 percent. More...First Phase Complete in Human and Chimp Genome-Wide DNA Comparison The ICR life sciences team has been conducting a large-scale comparison project of human versus chimp DNA sequence, the first phase of which has now been completed. The research involved the use of 40,000 purportedly random chimpanzee DNA sequences obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology that were produced as part of the chimpanzee genome project. More...Genetic Recombination Study Defies Human-Chimp Evolution Results from a recent study in human and chimpanzee genetics have shipwrecked yet another Darwinian hypothesis. More...Human lincRNA Regions Vastly Different from Chimpanzee It was once thought that the areas between protein-coding genes located around the genome were vast purposeless wastelands of alleged “junk DNA.” However, we now know that these previously misunderstood regions are literally teeming with functional activity that is key to life. More...Human-Chimp Genetic Similarity: Is the Evolutionary Dogma Valid? One of the major missions in ICR’s current research emphasis is to scientifically challenge the evolutionary tree of life as a valid biological paradigm.1 A common manifestation of this evolutionary dogma is the claim that humans are 95 to 99 percent genetically identical to chimpanzees. More...Human-Chimp Genetic Similarity: Refuting the Appeal to Human Genetic TestingA current research emphasis of the ICR life sciences team is the “tree of life,” a standard icon of the evolutionary paradigm.1 Evolutionists commonly try to buttress their claim of a universal tree of life by pointing to the genetic similarity between chimpanzees and humans. Evolutionists make several major claims in this regard: More...Human-Chimp Similarities: Common Ancestry or Flawed Research?In 2003, the human genome was heralded as a near-complete DNA sequence, except for the repetitive regions that could not be resolved due to the limitations of the prevailing DNA sequencing technologies.1 The chimpanzee genome was subsequently finished in 2005 with the hope that its completion would provide clear-cut DNA similarity evidence for an ape-human common ancestry. More...New Chromosome Research Undermines Human-Chimp Similarity Claims A recent high-profile article in the journal Nature released the results of a study with implications that shocked the scientific community because they contradict long-held claims of human-chimp DNA similarity. More...New Human-Chimp Chromosome 2 Data Challenge Common Ancestry Claims One of the leading arguments used to support the concept that apes—particularly chimpanzees—and humans descended from a common ancestor is the “chromosome 2 fusion model.” This scenario involves the claim that the end-to-end fusion of two small chimpanzee-like chromosomes (now called 2A and 2B in chimpanzees) formed one stable large chromosome in humans (chromosome 2). More...

The Ice Age: Causes and Consequences The Ice Age has been a longstanding problem for uniformitarian thinking, with many unsolved mysteries. No mere tweaking of today's climate conditions would cause such a catastrophe. A creationist model based on the revealed events of Scripture, however, offers a possible answer. More...A Mountain of Snow after the Genesis Flood Nor’easters enhanced by a warm Atlantic Ocean following the Genesis Flood would have dumped large quantities of snow in eastern Canada.1 This could explain why the Laurentide Ice Sheet was thicker farther to the east in North America during the Ice Age. More...An Ice Age in Yellowstone National Park Introduction Yellowstone National Park holds the distinction of being the first national park in the United States and in the world. It exhibits magnificent geological features such as a 30-mile-diameter volcanic caldera; myriads of geysers, including Old Faithful; and a major community of large animals such as deer, elk, moose, and bear. More...An Ice Age in Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park contains evidence that glaciers once filled Yosemite Valley to a depth of over 3,000 feet, almost to the top of Half Dome, and covered most of the higher elevations in the park. These glaciers are conventionally thought to have occurred over hundreds of thousands of years during several ice ages, the last of which reached its peak about 18,000 years ago. More...Ice Age Glaciers at Yosemite National Park Glaciers once filled Yosemite Valley almost to the top of Half Dome, stretching over Tuolumne Meadows and to Tioga Pass near the top of the Sierra Nevada. Large fields of granite that are now exposed were planed down by the movement of the glaciers as they ground downhill, leaving behind evidence of their presence and direction of travel. But if glaciers occurred after the Genesis Flood, how did they form and why have they disappeared? More...Mummified Forest Highlights Post-Flood Ice Age Scientists found a mummified forest in 2010 on northern Canada's Ellesmere Island. It had apparently been buried by a landslide long ago and was exposed by receding ice and glaciers. How those trees were able to grow in a place that is now too cold for them is uncertain. But several clues from the find fit with a biblical timeline and setting, and conflict with evolutionary assumptions. More...Neandertals Apparently Knew Medicinal Plants For decades, evolutionists had labeled Neandertals as sub-human, alleging that they had eaten mostly meat. But a recent forensic analysis of Neandertal teeth shows that they ate grains and other plants, which adds to the body of evidence showing they were human and not evolutionary ancestors. More...Neandertals Mixed with Humans in China Neandertal remains are mostly found in European caves. So when Neandertal-like characteristics were discovered among a fossilized jawbone and teeth in South China, it was cause for further investigation. Not only was the location a curiosity, but the jawbone shared both Neandertal and modern human features. Finds such as this create new kinks in the evolutionary chain of human and Neandertal history. More...Neanderthal Babies Were Human BabiesJapanese and European anthropologists recently published a study they conducted on the remains of Neanderthal children. The researchers compared reconstructions of a newborn Neanderthal with the skeletons of infant Neanderthals to gauge the growth rate of their heads. Their conclusions confirm several aspects of the creation model. More...Neanderthal Men Were Modern MenA set of fossilized human remains has been discovered in Iberia that shows partial Neanderthal characteristics, proving again that Neanderthals interbred with anatomically modern men. This adds to a growing list of evidence that demonstrates Neanderthal to have been fully human, rather than an evolutionary transition. In contrast to ever-evolving naturalistic interpretations, the biblical creation model has consistently maintained that Neanderthal man was just that—man. More...Ice Cores and the Age of the EarthIt is not uncommon to read that ice cores from the polar regions contain records of climatic change from the distant past. Research teams from the United States, the Soviet Union, Denmark, and France have bored holes over a mile deep into the ice near the poles and removed samples for analysis in their laboratories. More...

Many different measurable processes—from blue stars, Saturn’s heat, and Earth’s magnetic field to radiocarbon in coal, diamond, and fossils to mutation buildup in living creatures—confirm a biblical age of the universe of thousands, not billions, of years. The Universe Was Created Recently Many clock-like processes operating in the solar system and beyond indicate that the universe is young. More... Many Earth Clocks Indicate Recent Creation Measuring the rate at which worldwide processes function provides a "clock" by which the age of the earth may be calculated. More... Biological Clocks Indicate Recent Creation Biological systems most easily fit within a history measured in the thousands, rather than millions, of years. More... Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth A team of seven creation scientists have discovered incredible physical evidence that supports what the Bible says about the young age of the earth. More...

Fossils are the remains of once-living things. They can be plant or animal bodies that have been partially or completely replaced by minerals. They can be impressions that just show the shape of a creature, or tracks left behind by a traveler, or other remnants that testify to the lives of long-gone organisms. Some rare fossils even have original organic soft tissue encased in rock, showing that their organisms couldn't have been dead for millions of years, as evolution claims. All fossilized creatures appear suddenly and fully formed in the rock record, with no clear history of evolutionary transitions. This is consistent with the Bible’s assertion that God created life forms to reproduce within their own kinds. Second, fossils formed very quickly, before the animal or plant completely decayed or was scavenged. This means that fossils formed through catastrophic circumstances. Most fossils can be attributed to the worldwide catastrophe of Noah’s Flood, in which countless creatures were killed and then rapidly buried, or to its residual effects. Fossils also serve as reminders of God’s character. His righteousness and holiness obligated Him to cleanse the world of wickedness by drowning every land-dwelling, air-breathing creature that was not providentially preserved on the Ark. Fossils should be taken as reminders of the penalty of man’s sin and should motivate people to prepare for death. Fossil Anemone Tracks Don't Fit EvolutionInteresting markings were recently found on a rock in Newfoundland. A study concluded that they were trails left by seafloor-dwelling animals around 565 million years ago. But such a find is difficult to reconcile with the evolutionary teaching that muscles, and therefore animal locomotion, did not evolve until much later. More...Fossil Cuttlefish Has Original Tissue Cuttlefish are mollusks with a hard, supportive structure made of cleverly woven strands of a biochemical material called chitin and mixed with a hard biomineral called aragonite. A team of paleontologists found a supposedly 34 million-year-old fossil cuttlebone that still had both the original aragonite and chitin. This is significant, because one might expect the hard aragonite to persist in the fossil record, but not the organic chitin or protein. More...Fossil Discoveries Disrupt Evolutionary TimescalesPaleontologists assess the age of fossilized creatures by the rock layers in which they are found. A fossil found in a lower rock layer is considered to have lived in a much earlier time than one found in a higher ("younger") stratum. Fossil discoveries, however, continue to challenge this interpretation of the geologic timescale. More...Fossil Feather Colors Paint Recent Creation Picture But organic molecules like pigments, and especially proteins, shouldn't be there if the specimen is older than a million years. These results challenge the "millions of years" date assigned to this fossil. More...Fossil Feathers Convey ColorAnalysis of an unusual Brazilian fossil has led U.S. researchers to link microscopic fossil features to bird feather colors. The fossil has dramatic black and white banding patterns that have been interpreted as post-fossilization bacterial activity. However, there are structures in the rock in which it was found that are the same size and shape as cells from living dark feathers. More...Fossil Indicates Fig and Wasp Life Cycles Were Always IntertwinedThe life cycles of fig trees and fig wasps are so closely intertwined, they look like they were made for each other. If this is true, then their fossils would be quite similar to modern forms, showing no history of imagined evolutionary past. And recent research on a fig wasp fossil shows exactly that. More...Fossil Moth Still Shows Its Colors Many butterflies and moths have colors that show a metallic sheen. That sheen occurs because the refracting material in their wings and bodies is spread out in layers precisely as thin as the wavelengths of the light they refract. Researchers recently found these delicate structures in moth fossils from Germany that are supposedly 47 million years old. But how could something that delicate last that long? More...Fossil Pigment Paints Long Ages into a CornerThe famous Confuciusornis sanctus fossil from China contains patches that appear to be residue from the bird's original tissues. Long evolutionary ages should have made this impossible, since any such biological material would have completely decayed millions of years ago. But although the fossil is supposedly 120 million years old, researchers recently confirmed the presence of original organic material. There is a serious problem with this fossil's age assignment. More...Fossil Skin Pigment Evolved Three Times? Paleontologists recently presented their analysis of original skin leftovers from three marine reptile fossils and inadvertently revealed three clues that darken their evolutionary explanations. More...Fossilized Biomaterials Must Be YoungInstitute for Creation Research scientists documented several clock-like processes in rocks during the groundbreaking Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth (RATE) project, confirming an age of 6,000 years. More...Fossilized Brain May Give Paleontologists Headache Who has ever heard of a fossilized brain? Few would expect such a discovery, yet it looks like that's what researchers found inside a Stone Age skull from Norway. If so, it would confirm a published creation prediction and challenge many evolutionary timescales. More...Circular Reasoning in Polar Bear Origins Date Biologists agree that polar bears, brown bears, and black bears all descended from a prototype of the bear kind. Some researchers infer from the biblical record that bears rapidly and recently diversified from a representative bear pair on board Noah’s Ark, while those who reject the biblical record derive age information from other sources. More...