16:20 bruise Satan under your feet. There is a clear allusion here to the primeval promise of Genesis 3:15, anticipating the final victory of Christ over Satan, when the Seed of the woman will crush the head of that old serpent (Revelation 20:2,10). In the meantime, believers, who also in a sense are the woman’s seed (Revelation 12:17), can achieve local victories over Satan and his wiles by resisting him “steadfast in the faith” (I Peter 5:9). If we resist him with Scripture, as Jesus did, testing and refuting his enticements therewith (Matthew 4:4,7,10), then he will “flee from you” (James 4:7), just as he did from Jesus “for a season” (Luke 4:13). Such local victories can be obtained over these dangerous teachers shortly in this manner, but we need to be continually alert to recurrent attacks. The ultimate victory over Satan will be won only by the Lord Jesus Christ when He returns.

16:20 Amen. There are three “amens” pronounced by Paul as he tries to bring his Roman epistle to a close (Romans 16:20,24,27). There had already been another “amen” at the end of Romans 15.


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