22:16 churches. This is the first reference to “churches” since the letters to the churches at the beginning of the book (e.g., Revelation 3:22). This is undoubtedly because there will be no true churches as such in the world during the events of the tribulation period, as recorded in Revelation 4–19. However, everything in the book is intended for the instruction of the churches in this present age—hence, this reminder.

22:16 David. The Lord Jesus Christ is both David’s Creator and his descendant (Matthew 22:41-46). That can only be true if He is both God and Man, the God/Man.

22:16 morning star. Satan had aspired to be “Lucifer, son of the morning” (Isaiah 14:12), where “Lucifer” can also be translated “Day-Star” (Hebrew haylel), referring to Venus, the bright star of the dawning. Here, however, after Satan has been forever banished to the lake of fire, Christ proclaims that He alone is “the bright morning star,” where “morning” in this case is the Greek orthoinos, always referring only to Venus, the star of early dawn. At the end of his Revelation, the Lord is reminding all readers that He, not Satan, is the harbinger of eternal light and life. The great conflict of the ages between Satan and Christ, the old serpent and the promised Seed of the woman, will soon be over. Christ is the true Day-Star, Son of the morning.


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