31:19 I was turned. Note the order of events associated with restoration. First, Ephraim had to be “chastised,” corrected with either words or blows or both, as necessary. Next, he had to be “turned,” to go back where he had begun. This required him to “repent” (the Hebrew word, nacham, basically means “sigh,” and it involves both sorrow for the past and comfort in facing the future). Following this, he must be “instructed” by God’s Word concerning the full implications of both past failure and future responsibility. This would involve being “ashamed” and even “confounded,” bearing the open “reproach” of his former sinfulness. The end result, however, would be God’s “mercy” (Jeremiah 31:20) and restoration.