6:4 nurture and admonition. “Nurture” (Greek paideia) is the same as “chastening” in Hebrews 12:5,7, and “instruction” in II Timothy 3:16. It has particular reference to child-training, carried out with both firmness and gentleness as needed in each particular case. “Admonition” (Greek nouthesia) means literally “putting in mind”; thus “admonition of the Lord” implies teaching the Lord’s ways through His Word. Note that both—instruction through actions and instruction through verbal teaching—are primarily the responsibility of the father, although others (especially the mother—note, e.g., Proverbs 1:8) may be called upon by him to participate in the child-training activities. It is significant that the first reference in the Bible to teaching has to do with Abraham’s responsibility to bring up his own son in the nurture and admonition of the Lord (Genesis 18:19).